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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2021

Mohd Shahrudin Abd Manan and Blakely Kennedy

Sketching is a creative skill that most architects develop over their long period of study and is considered an effective medium for communicating imaginative thinking and…

Abstract

Purpose

Sketching is a creative skill that most architects develop over their long period of study and is considered an effective medium for communicating imaginative thinking and conceptual ideas in architecture. As a concept, mood is generally associated with imagining specific ambiance and spatial experience during the schematic phase of the architectural design process. While most architectural research on mood revolves around post-occupancy evaluation, colour effect and lighting comfort, few studies have been conducted to systematically investigate conceptual issues related to mood imagination. Besides, there has been little attempt to appreciate sketches as a reliable conceptual data source for architectural research.

Design/methodology/approach

To bridge this knowledge gap, this paper explores a semiological analysis of mood visualisation using architectural sketches. By framing the experiment within the architecture education context, the paper begins by discussing the relationship between sketching, mood and semiology in architecture. The discussion continues by highlighting methodological issues in the design of our experiment. The experiment comprised architecture students from undergraduate and postgraduate programmes. Following the visual and textual data derived from the experiment, two semiological analyses, namely, mood sign analysis and mood signifier analysis, were conducted to understand their imaginative thinking.

Findings

The results revealed significant preferential differences between the students on the use of specific semiotic representation and design language to conceptualise their mood idea.

Originality/value

As a preliminary experiment, this study constitutes an early attempt to further explore potential research related to architectural sketches and the creative imagination that may be beneficial to designers, art psychologists, educators and researchers alike.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Yoo-Jeong Lee and Sungmin Kim

The purpose of this study is to develop an easy-to-use CAD software for fashion flat sketch that can create new sketches by combining the flat sketch modules.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an easy-to-use CAD software for fashion flat sketch that can create new sketches by combining the flat sketch modules.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample fashion flat module database was constructed by performing a sketch modularization process as well as a morphological analysis. In addition, an automatic module assembling algorithm was developed to create new sketches using the database.

Findings

The module assembling algorithm enabled the users to make new fashion flat sketches by the combination of design modules in the database. The example database constructed in this study was composed of bodice, sleeve, collar, cuffs and pocket modules chosen based on the results of a morphological analysis.

Social implications

A CAD program has been developed that might improve the efficiency of design work by helping the users to make fashion flat sketches more easily.

Originality/value

The automatic module assembling algorithm developed in this study has not been implemented in any existing commercial systems. It is expected that users who do not have expertise in fashion design could be able to participate from the clothing design stage as a mass customization prosumer by using the software.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Roland A. Pfister and Martin J. Eppler

In this paper, the authors aim to review the benefits of sketching or ad‐hoc, collaborative hand drawings for knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, and knowledge documentation.

3026

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors aim to review the benefits of sketching or ad‐hoc, collaborative hand drawings for knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, and knowledge documentation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review in the fields of design, psychology, and computer science that documents the multiple advantages of sketch‐based approaches for managing knowledge in organizations, especially on the team‐level. The authors argue for the complementary use of this “low‐tech knowledge management” approach with existing digital infrastructures and tools. The literature survey is based on a search for the title term “sketching” on the ISI Web of Knowledge online database. After topic filtering and eliminating all articles where sketching was used in the sense of a project proposal or a theoretical sketch, there were only 48 articles left related to the keyword “sketching”. Based on the authors' awareness of important contributions in the field of sketching, which did not appear in the database search, they extended their inclusion criteria to include grey or conference literature and examined the reference sections of highly cited articles. The article concludes with a set of propositions for practitioners regarding the use of sketching in different knowledge management contexts and with implications for future research in this area.

Findings

Knowledge creation contexts, such as innovation management or problem solving sessions, provide participants with the opportunity to jointly devise large scale sketches in order to integrate their views and experiences on joint frameworks. Knowledge sharing situations, such as in team briefings or debriefings, in hand‐over processes, or in strategic alliances, equip all participants with pens and paper tablecloths to augment their knowledge dialogues with visible means that facilitate interaction and turn‐taking, increase vividness and memorability, and allow for an authentic and personal follow‐up documentation.

Research limitations/implications

An implication for research is to study sketching in knowledge management through interdisciplinary research efforts. This could be done by paying attention to the way that digital and hand‐drawn sketches affect interactions differently among professionals and the way that they share, defend, and integrate their knowledge. Specifically researchers with a background in organizational psychology could work jointly with human computer interaction specialists to study differences among analogue and digital sketching activities. In this way one can learn about the respective advantages and risks of hand‐drawn versus computer‐supported sketching for knowledge‐intensive group collaboration tasks.

Originality/value

The literature review resulted in an extended list of benefits which support three relevant tasks in knowledge management, namely knowledge creation, knowledge sharing and knowledge documentation. This compilation shows simple and effective ways in which the use of hand drawings can enhance existing knowledge management practices.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Jie Xu, P.Y. Mok, C.W.M. Yuen and R.W.Y. Yee

To better respond to today’s volatile and changing fashion market, the purpose of this paper is to develop a web-based design support system that enables users to design…

2375

Abstract

Purpose

To better respond to today’s volatile and changing fashion market, the purpose of this paper is to develop a web-based design support system that enables users to design realistic and interesting skirts in the form of technical sketches over the internet.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed system mainly consists of a sketch representation and composing method (SRCM), a graphic user interface (GUI) and a controller. The SRCM is implemented at the server end that generates technical sketches according to user defined parameters and features via the web-based GUI at the client side. The controller manages the workflows between the server and the clients.

Findings

To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a survey was conducted by inviting 30 subjects (professional designers or undergraduate students studying fashion design) to have trial run of the system in Hong Kong and in the USA. Positive comments and feedbacks were received, and valuable suggestions were also obtained in regard to the prototype system.

Originality/value

Compared with traditional computer-aided design (CAD) systems, the proposed system is more effective and easier to operate as users can create technical sketches in accurate proportions with simple computer operations in a few mouse clicks. Besides, the output sketches are fully compatible with most commercial CAD software. The system is developed based on web technologies, thus fashion sketches can be easily designed using any computer connected to the internet; it can be implemented on Android or iOS platform in the future.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Lixin An and Wei Li

The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of fashion flat sketches classification and proposed an integrated approach. It aims to propose a fast, reliable method…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of fashion flat sketches classification and proposed an integrated approach. It aims to propose a fast, reliable method to handle multi-class fashion flat sketches classification problems and lay the foundation for the garment style query in the next step.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed integrated approach adopts wavelet Fourier descriptor (WFD), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and extreme learning machine (ELM). First, the discrete wavelet and Fourier transform are adopted to extract the shape features of fashion flat sketches. Then, LDA is employed for multi-class classification to reduce dimensionality. Finally, ELM is used as the classifier.

Findings

The experimental results show that the classification accuracy of the integrated approach is obtained at about 100 percent. Contrary to the traditional approaches, efficiency and accuracy are the advantages of the present approach.

Research limitations/implications

Fashion concept is conveyed often in the form of the fashion illustration or sketch. This type of sketch is useful to imply the style and overall feel of the design. However, this sketch gives no clue about the parts or sections that make up each garment. For this reason, this paper only studies the classification of flat sketches.

Originality/value

A new shape descriptor named WFD is proposed. The WFD acquires high classification accuracy comparing with Fourier descriptor (FD) and multiscale Fourier descriptor (MFD) without dimensionality reduction and nearly the same classification accuracy comparing with FD while MFD easily causes small sample size problem with dimensionality reduction using LDA. In addition, ELM is first used as the classifier in the textiles field related to the classification problem.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2007

Theodore Zamenopoulos and Katerina Alexiou

Even though design as a purposeful activity naturally fits into the realm of cybernetics, the emphasis on control has limited the scope of using cybernetic principles in…

1035

Abstract

Purpose

Even though design as a purposeful activity naturally fits into the realm of cybernetics, the emphasis on control has limited the scope of using cybernetic principles in design. The idea of organization, another fundamental concept in cybernetics, has received less attention in design research and seems worthy of further exploration. The purpose of the paper is to review the two concepts and clarify their role and meaning in design. Overall, using insights from complex systems science, the paper attempts to recast the relationship between cybernetics and design.

Design/methodology/approach

The treatment uses category theory as a language and methodological approach in order to formally express the concepts of “organization” “control” and “design” and then study the relations between them.

Findings

Organization is defined using the mathematical concept of sketch, i.e. as a characterization of the complementary relation between theories and models. The paper demonstrates that the peculiarity of design rests on the fact that the distinction between theories and models is an anticipated but emergent state. In contrast, control‐based representations assume that the theory‐model distinction is given in advance, as an intrinsic characteristic. The paper demonstrates that design is a distinct paradigm in relation to control, yet it falls within the domain of cybernetic and complex systems enquiry.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the understanding of design as a distinct type of problem in cybernetics by exposing differences between control and design problems. The paper also further lays the foundations for developing a cybernetic theory of design based on the concept of organization.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 36 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2014

P. Y. Mok, X.X. Wang, J. Xu, J.T. Fan, Y.L. Kwok and John H Xin

In this study, a methodology integrating a sketch design recognition approach with an interactive genetic algorithm is proposed to help laypersons get clothes reflecting…

Abstract

In this study, a methodology integrating a sketch design recognition approach with an interactive genetic algorithm is proposed to help laypersons get clothes reflecting their preferences. The sketch design recognition approach consists of a composite description model, a sketch recognition method and a database. First, a composite description model based on the knowledge of fashion design is developed to describe the characteristics of a skirt. Second, a sketch recognition method is used to help laypersons get satisfactory clothes. Third, a database in constructed to record general elements of skirts. Moreover, an interactive genetic algorithm (IGA) is used to accelerate the sketch recognition process. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can 'recognize' users' preferred styles efficiently. The subjective evaluation has shown that the system can help general consumers without any fashion design or sketch training to create their own designs.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Klen Copic Pucihar, Matjaž Kljun, John Mariani and Alan John Dix

Personal projects are any kind of projects whose management is left to an individual untrained in project management and is greatly influenced by this individual’s…

1077

Abstract

Purpose

Personal projects are any kind of projects whose management is left to an individual untrained in project management and is greatly influenced by this individual’s personal touch. This includes the majority of knowledge workers who daily manage information relating to several personal projects. The authors have conducted an in-depth qualitative investigation on information management of such projects and the tacit knowledge behind its processes that cannot be found in the organisational structures of current personal information management (PIM) tools (file managers, e-mail clients, web browsers). The purpose of this paper is to reveal and understand project information management practices in details and provide guidelines for personal project management tools.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews similar to that in several other PIM exploratory studies were carried out focusing on project fragmentation, information overlap and project context recreation. In addition, the authors enhanced interviews with sketching approach not yet used to study PIM. Sketches were used for articulating things that were not easily expressed through words, they represented a time stamp of a project context in the projects’ lifetime, uncovered additional tacit knowledge behind project information management not mentioned during the interviews, and were also used to find what they have in common which might be used in prototype designing.

Findings

The paper presents first personal project definition based on the conceptualisations derived from the study. The study revealed that the extensive information fragmentation in the file hierarchy (due to different organisational needs and ease of information access) poses a significant challenge to context recreation besides cross-tool fragmentation so far described in the literature. The study also reveals the division of project information into core and support and emphasises the importance of support information in relation to project goals. Other findings uncover the division of input/output information, project overlaps through information reuse, storytelling and visualising information relations, which could help with user modelling and enhancing project context recreation.

Research limitations/implications

On of the limitations is the group of participants that cannot represent the ideally generalised knowledge worker as there are many different kinds of knowledge workers and they all have different information needs besides different management practices. However, participants of variety of different backgrounds were observed and the authors converged observations into points of project information management similarities across the spectrum of different professions. Nevertheless, its observations and conceptualisations should be repeatable. For one, some of the issues that emerged during this work have been to different extents discussed in other studies.

Practical implications

The empirical findings are used to create guidelines for designing personal project information management tools: support the selective focus on information with the division into core and supportive information; visualise changes in project information space to support narratives for context recreation; overcome fragmentation in the file system with selective unification; visualising project’s information relationship to better understand the complexity of project information space; and support navigating in project information space on two axes: time and between projects (overlaps through information).

Originality/value

The study presents a longitudinal insight into personal project information management. As such it provides a first formal definition of personal project from the information point of view. The method used in the study presented uses a new approach – sketching in which participants externalised and visualised personal information and projects they discussed. The insights derived from the study form design implications for personal project management tools for knowledge workers.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2010

G.M. Ditchfield

It is not difficult to understand why the Sketches would be credited to Sharp. His death four years before the publication of Ricardo's Principles placed him within the…

Abstract

It is not difficult to understand why the Sketches would be credited to Sharp. His death four years before the publication of Ricardo's Principles placed him within the period under discussion by Seligman. Sharp possessed an extremely wide range of interests and was a prolific writer on a remarkable variety of topics. By 1809 he was a prominent public figure and had produced more than 40 separate works, several of which had reached second or third editions. He had established a reputation as a controversialist and his oeuvre is certainly consistent with Seligman's generalisation that the ‘greater part of the economic literature’ between 1776 (the year of The Wealth of Nations) and 1817 consisted of ‘pamphlets dealing with current practical problems’ (Seligman, 1903, p. 336). Sharp had published on the conditions in West Africa, the illegality of the press-ganging of sailors, parliamentary reform, colonial law, frankpledge, a popular militia and public charities.

Details

English, Irish and Subversives among the Dismal Scientists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-061-3

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Charlie D. Frowd, William B. Erickson, James M. Lampinen, Faye C. Skelton, Alex H. McIntyre and Peter J.B. Hancock

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of seven variables that emerge from forensic research on facial-composite construction and naming using contemporary…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of seven variables that emerge from forensic research on facial-composite construction and naming using contemporary police systems: EvoFIT, Feature and Sketch.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper involves regression- and meta-analyses on composite-naming data from 23 studies that have followed procedures used by police practitioners for forensic face construction. The corpus for analyses contains 6,464 individual naming responses from 1,069 participants in 41 experimental conditions.

Findings

The analyses reveal that composites constructed from the holistic EvoFIT system were over four-times more identifiable than composites from “Feature” (E-FIT and PRO-fit) and Sketch systems; Sketch was somewhat more effective than Feature systems. EvoFIT was more effective when internal features were created before rather than after selecting hair and the other (blurred) external features. Adding questions about the global appearance of the face (as part of the holistic-cognitive interview (H-CI)) gives a valuable improvement in naming over the standard face-recall cognitive interview (CI) for all three system types tested. The analysis also confirmed that composites were considerably less effective when constructed from a long (one to two days) compared with a short (0-3.5 hours) retention interval.

Practical implications

Variables were assessed that are of importance to forensic practitioners who construct composites with witnesses and victims of crime.

Originality/value

Using a large corpus of forensically-relevant data, the main result is that EvoFIT using the internal-features method of construction is superior; an H-CI administered prior to face construction is also advantageous (cf. face-recall CI) for EvoFIT as well as for two further contrasting production systems.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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