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Through the application of traditional and contemporary feminist theories in gender mainstreaming, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to emergent debate on gender…
Through the application of traditional and contemporary feminist theories in gender mainstreaming, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to emergent debate on gender dimensions in climate-smart agriculture (CSA) adoption by smallholder farmers in disaster-prone regions. This is important to ensure that CSA strategies are tailored to farmer-specific gender equality goals.
An exploratory-sequential mixed methods research design which is qualitatively biased was applied. Key informant interviews and farmer focus group discussions in two study sites formed initial qualitative phase whose findings were explored in a quantitative cross-sectional household survey.
Findings shared in this paper indicate the predominant application of traditional gender mainstreaming approaches in CSA focusing on parochial gender dichotomy. Qualitative findings highlight perceptions that western gender approaches are not fully applicable to local contexts and realities, with gender mainstreaming in CSA seemingly to fulfil donor requirements, and ignorant of the heterogeneous nature of social groups. Quantitative findings establish that married men are majority adopters and non-adopters of CSA, while dis-adopters are predominantly de jure female household heads. The latter are more likely to adopt CSA than married women whose main role in CSA is implementers of spouse’s decisions. Access to education, intra-household power relations, productive asset and land ownership are socio-cultural dynamics shaping farmer profiles.
By incorporating African feminisms and intersectionality in CSA, value of this study lies in recommending gender policy reforms incorporating local gender contexts within the African socio-cultural milieu. This paper accentuates potential benefits of innovative blend of both contemporary and classic gender mainstreaming approaches in CSA research, practice and technology development in disaster-prone regions.
This paper aims to explore the local conceptualisation of gender and framings of men and masculinities at the local level, which may be applied to improve gender…
This paper aims to explore the local conceptualisation of gender and framings of men and masculinities at the local level, which may be applied to improve gender mainstreaming in smallholder farming.
Qualitative data were collected from a total of 70 key informants and community members knowledgeable about climate change and smallholder agriculture, disaster risks, gender and broader community issues in Malawi and Zambia. The thematic analysis was used to identify the themes emerging from the qualitative data.
Practitioners apply western framings of gender while communities consider their realities and contexts and emphasise that gender means men and women need to work together. Although institutional provisions are in place for gender mainstreaming, practitioners have cautioned against the influence of the global north in gender mainstreaming, which ignores local realities. Applying a masculinities lens at a local level established the existence of subordinate and marginalised men often excluded from interventions and how hierarchical relationships among men limited women's participation.
Future research, practice and policy initiatives in disaster risk reduction and resilience-building need to engage with positive masculinities in gender mainstreaming. This work stimulates a broader framing of gender that builds on the core values and perspectives of communities.
Contemporary gender mainstreaming approaches need to consider local contextualisation of gender, emphasising the critical aspect of cooperation between women and men in overcoming climate-related hazards and risk reduction.
This work contributes to the nascent discourse on local gender perspectives and masculinities in disaster risk reduction and resilience in Southern Africa.