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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Ian Barnes and Claire Randerson

Accession to the European Union is one of the most powerful foreign policy tools exercised within the European arena and enlargement negotiations have been a major…

Abstract

Purpose

Accession to the European Union is one of the most powerful foreign policy tools exercised within the European arena and enlargement negotiations have been a major stimulus to reform in Central and Eastern Europe. Conditionality has evolved as over time into a dynamic instrument used to ensure that new members are sufficiently prepared to take on the responsibilities of EU membership, whilst also satisfying existing member states that new members will not prove too burdensome. This paper aims to examine some of the lessons learnt from the first stage of the Fifth Enlargement and the stricter use of conditionality mechanisms for Romania, Bulgaria and beyond.

Design/methodology/approach

The article is based on interviews with EU officials involved in the enlargement process.

Findings

The article finds that the use of conditionality in the 2004 enlargement has had a far from uniform effect on candidates and policy areas and that the commission has learnt much from this experience. The integration of Bulgaria and Romania will offer more significant challenges and conditionality has evolved as a mechanism to address these.

Originality/value

The article offersboth an empirical as well as theoretical evaluation of the use of conditionality in the context of the EU enlargement process.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2020

Minh Le, Viet-Ngu Hoang, Clevo Wilson and Thanh Ngo

There is ample empirical evidence to show that larger banks are more efficient than smaller banks in developed countries. However, there is very little empirical evidence…

Abstract

Purpose

There is ample empirical evidence to show that larger banks are more efficient than smaller banks in developed countries. However, there is very little empirical evidence to show that in small developing economies, such as Vietnam, bank size is associated with increased risk, especially credit risk. This paper aim to provide empirical evidence to fill in this gap. This paper employs a slack-based directional distance function using the intermediation approach in measuring the inefficiency of banks in Vietnam during the period 2006–2015. Non-performing loans are used as an undesirable output to capture credit risk. The results show that small banks are more efficient than large banks at the mean level and across the entire distributions of inefficiency of the two groups. Input waste, output shortage and risk surplus of big banks are nearly three times higher than those of small banks. The results are robust under constant and variable returns to scale for production technologies. The study’s empirical results contribute to the ongoing debate on the merits of enlarging bank size in a small transitional economy and suggest that policy makers should pay attention to the risk and inefficiency of large banks to enhance the performance of Vietnam's banking system as a whole.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the non-radial slack-based directional technology distance function developed by Färe and Grosskopf (2010) to estimate the efficiency of banks using the data envelopment analysis technique. Data for 44 commercial banks are used.

Findings

The empirical results of the paper contribute to the ongoing debate on the merits of enlarging bank size in a small transitional economy and suggest that policy makers should pay attention to the risk and inefficiency of large banks to improve the performance of Vietnam's banking system as a whole.

Originality/value

This paper extends the extant literature by examining whether efficiency is associated with size in a typical transitional developing economy. The classic Cournot model, the structure-conduct-performance and the efficiency structure hypotheses state that larger banks are more efficient than smaller banks (Bikker and Bos, 2008). Empirical studies of Berger (2003), Mester (2005), Wheelock and Wilson (2012) lend support to the statement in developed countries. However, not much empirical literature focuses on small developing economies such as Vietnam to show that bank size is associated with increased risk, especially credit risk. The study’s empirical results show that size enlargement is not positively associated with risk-adjusted efficiency. Input waste, output shortage and risk surplus of big banks are nearly three times higher than those of small banks. The results are robust under constant and variable returns to scale for production technologies.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Yijun Yuan, Yanying Chen and Lili Wang

The purpose of this paper is research the relationship between size of government and FDI inflows of the host country, and provide a strategies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is research the relationship between size of government and FDI inflows of the host country, and provide a strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting the fixed effect model of panel data, this paper uses related observations from 81 countries between 2002 and 2006 to analyze the impacts of government size (measured by score of government size) on FDI inflows.

Findings

The results show that the enlargement of government size has a positive effect on FDI inflows, and the effect is much more significant in developing countries.

Originality/value

There is no previous research concerning the impacts of size of government on FDI inflows. Through the investigation, the paper finds the relation between government size and FDI inflows and provides much valuable information.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Emese Peter Fáyné

The absorption of the New Member States (NMS) after the 2004 enlargement and their integration into Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is perhaps the most important…

Abstract

Purpose

The absorption of the New Member States (NMS) after the 2004 enlargement and their integration into Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is perhaps the most important challenge facing the European Union (EU). The article seeks to address the issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The article is based upon observations of contemporary events within Hungary and relates the political process with issues of fiscal governance.

Findings

The NMS of the EU, unlike Great Britain and Denmark will not have an “opt‐out” – the right to remain outside EMU. Indeed, the NMS have declared that they want to join the monetary system as soon as is feasible. This is the next major step in the integration process for Hungary. In particular, the article observes that there has been an electoral business cycle which overrides Hungary's longer term commitment to qualify for EMU and provides an insight into the process of achieving EMU membership in one NMS.

Originality/value

The article discusses how Hungary has elaborated its strategy for entry into EMU, but the target date has been changed mainly because of the problems of significant budget deficits. This inability to maintain consistent progress towards entry indicates that there are issues of fiscal governance which need to be resolved.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Mark Lehrer and Stefan Schmid

For firms that depend on personalized management as a key element of their competitive advantage, maintaining personalized management in the face of sustained growth…

Abstract

Purpose

For firms that depend on personalized management as a key element of their competitive advantage, maintaining personalized management in the face of sustained growth presents a particular challenge. The purpose of this paper is to examine how firms in the Germanic Mittelstand have endeavored to “scale up” personalization.

Design/methodology/approach

Different ways of scaling up personalization are explained with examples.

Findings

The concept of personalization need not just concern customers, in contrast to conventional treatments of personalization. Mittelstand firms illustrate the scaling up of personalization to target stakeholder groups other than just customers.

Research limitations/implications

In recent years, personalization has come to refer to the customization of products to the preferences of individual customers. In contrast, a neglected but important topic is personalization of and within firms. Personalization refers to imbuing a firm with the personal qualities of individual personalities indissociable from management of the company.

Practical implications

Methods for scaling up personalization need to be truly scalable to be effective. Methods that only enable a one-time enlargement in the scope of the personalized business are liable to fail in the longer run.

Originality/value

By examining personalization as an important characteristic of small to medium-sized firms that they wish to maintain as they grow larger, this study highlights a little noticed dimension of Mittelstand growth strategies – and endeavors to bring personality back into research on “personalization.”

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Sébastien Pommier and Fabien Rondeau

Purpose: Following the theoretical literature on growth model with externalities, the chapter aims at finding empirical evidence of the main sources of economic…

Abstract

Purpose: Following the theoretical literature on growth model with externalities, the chapter aims at finding empirical evidence of the main sources of economic interdependencies in Europe.

Methodology/approach: A two-step econometric procedure is adopted. In the first step, in order to evaluate growth spillovers in Europe, cointegration relationships between indexes of industrial production per capita are estimated for 15 European countries. The estimated coefficients, interpreted as long-run elasticities between European countries, appear to be different between countries and unstable over time. In the second step, these coefficients are explained by trade, specialization, research and development (R&D), and macroeconomic variables.

Findings: Panel estimations show strong evidence in favor of a positive relationship between openness, country size, knowledge accumulation, and the long-run sensitivity to European income. European income spillovers are not explained by the specialization of trade and production. We conclude that countries that benefit the most from economic integration are the largest and those that invest the most in R&D.

Originality/value of chapter: The two-step approach adopted in this chapter is original and allows for measuring the impact of various determinants of externalities at the same time.

Details

Nonlinear Modeling of Economic and Financial Time-Series
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-489-5

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Saad Waqar, Jiangwei Liu, Qidong Sun, Kai Guo and Jie Sun

This paper aims to investigate the influence of different post-annealing cooling conditions, i.e. furnace cooling (heat treatment (HT) 1 – slow cooling) and air cooling…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of different post-annealing cooling conditions, i.e. furnace cooling (heat treatment (HT) 1 – slow cooling) and air cooling (HT 2 – fast cooling), on the microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melting (SLM) built austenitic 316L stainless steel (SS).

Design/methodology/approach

Three sets of 316L SS samples were fabricated using a machine standard scanning strategy. Each set consists of three tensile samples and a cubic sample for microstructural investigations. Two sets were subsequently subjected to annealing HT with different cooling conditions, i.e. HT 1 and HT 2, whereas one set was used in the as-built (AB) condition. The standard metallographic techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction were used to investigate the microstructural variations induced by different cooling conditions. The resultant changes in mechanical properties were also investigated.

Findings

The phase change of SLM fabricated 316L was observed to be independent of the investigated cooling conditions and all samples consist of austenite phase only. Both HT 1 and HT 2 lead to dissolved characteristic melt pools of SLM. Noticeable increase in grain size of HT 1 and HT 2 samples was also observed. Compared with AB samples, the grain size of HT 1 and HT 2 was increased by 12.5% and 50%, respectively. A decreased hardness and strength, along with an increased ductility was also observed for HT 2 samples compared with HT 1 and AB samples.

Originality/value

From previous studies, it has been noticed that most investigations on HT of SLM fabricated 316L were mainly focused on the HT temperature or holding time. However, the post-HT cooling rate is also an equally important factor in deciding the microstructure and mechanical properties of heat-treated components. Therefore, this paper investigates the influence of different post-annealing cooling conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties of SLM fabricated 316L components. This study provides a foundation for considering the post-HT cooling rate as an influential parameter that controls the properties of heat-treated SLM components.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2006

Giuseppe Bertola

Abstract

Details

Designing the New European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-863-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1980

Peter A Haigh

The British Library Lending Division holds material on both microfiche and roll microfilm. Most of the roll microfilm is 35 mm. The Lending Division prefers to purchase…

Abstract

The British Library Lending Division holds material on both microfiche and roll microfilm. Most of the roll microfilm is 35 mm. The Lending Division prefers to purchase negative microforms. Both diazo‐based and silver image stock is purchased. Microforms are entered in the Lending Division's catalogues and indexes in the same way as conventional literature, with a note to indicate that the item is in microform. The new building at Boston Spa includes provision for a microform store, and cabinets which will be on mobile bases have been especially designed to hold either microfiche or microfilm in one run. Standard published catalogues and bibliographies are used to identify the fact that a particular title has been published in microform; identifying individual items in a series or reel can be difficult. The Lending Division duplicates film and lends the duplicate, a process which is more labour intensive for roll film than for fiche. The need to observe the British Copyright Act 1957 sometimes makes it impossible to provide a service in the most economical way. Conditions imposed by suppliers can govern the format that can be issued. The Division has in recent years purchased a number of special collections on microform.

Details

Interlending Review, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-2773

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Endalkachew Getachew Ushachew, Mukesh Kumar Sharma and Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

The purpose of this study is to explore the heat transfer enhancement in copper–water nanofluid flowing in a diagonally vented rectangular enclosure with four discrete…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the heat transfer enhancement in copper–water nanofluid flowing in a diagonally vented rectangular enclosure with four discrete heaters mounted centrally on the sidewalls and a square-shaped embedded heated block in the influence of a static magnetic field.

Design/methodology/approach

Four discrete heaters are mounted centrally on each sidewall of the rectangular enclosure that embraces a heated square block. A static transverse magnetic field is acting on the vertical walls. The Navier–Stokes equations of motion and the energy equation are modified by incorporating Lorentz force and basic physical properties of nanofluid. The derived momentum and energy equations are tackled numerically using the successive over-relaxation technique associating with the Gauss–Seidel iteration technique. The effects of physical parameters connected to dynamics of flow and heat convection are explored from streamlines and isotherms graphs and discussed numerically in terms of Nusselt number.

Findings

The effect of the embedded heated square block size and its location in the enclosure, nanoparticles volume fraction and the intensity of the magnetic field on flow and heat transfer are computed. Compared with the case when no heated block is embedded in the enclosure, in free convection at Ra = 106, the average local Nusselt number on the wall-mounted heaters is attenuated by 8.25%, 11.24% and 12.75% when the enclosure embraced a heated square block of side length 10% of H, 20% of H and 30% of H, respectively. An increase in Hartmann number suppresses the heat convection.

Research limitations/implications

The enhancement in the convective heat is greater when the buoyancy effect dominates the viscous effects. Placing the embedded heated block near the inlet vent, the lower temperature zone has reduced while the embedded heated block is at the central location of the enclosure, the high-temperature zone has expanded. The external magnetic field can be used as a non-invasive controlling device.

Practical implications

The numerically simulated results for heat convection of water-based copper nanofluid agreed qualitatively with the existing experimental results.

Social implications

The models could be used in designing a target-oriented heat exchanger.

Originality/value

The paper includes a comparative study for three locations of the embedded heated square. The optimal results for the centrally located heated block are also performed for three different sizes of the embedded block. The numerically simulated results are compared with the published numerical and experimental studies.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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