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Article
Publication date: 22 December 2021

Eonyou Shin and Elahe Saeidi

The purpose of this study was to categorize the whole body shapes of overweight and obese females in the US and examine apparel fit based on the current ASTM sizing

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to categorize the whole body shapes of overweight and obese females in the US and examine apparel fit based on the current ASTM sizing standards related to the body shapes categorized.

Design/methodology/approach

Body scan data from 2,672 subjects were used. To categorize their whole body shapes using 97 body measurements, principal component analysis with varimax rotation, a hierarchical cluster analysis and K-means cluster analysis were used. To compare the ASTM sizing standards for plus sizes (curvy and straight) and missy sizes (curvy and straight), five body parts (bust, under bust, waist, top hip, hip) using the formula for fit tolerance (measurement plus half of the interval) were compared with the ASTM sizing standards to determine the size appropriate for each body part.

Findings

Five whole body shapes among overweight and obese females in the US were categorized: Rectangle-curvy; parallelogram-moderately curvy; parallelogram-hip tilt; inverted trapezoid-moderately curvy and inverted trapezoid-hip tilt. When the body measurements in each body shape were compared with the current ASTM sizing systems for both misses and plus sizes, four-fifths or more of overweight and obese female adults in the US would find it difficult to obtain a perfect fit for both tops and bottoms.

Originality/value

Identifying whole body shapes among overweight and obese women in the US contributes significantly, as it will help apparel companies that target the markets of larger women develop a new sizing system. This study is the first attempt to analyze fit by comparing the ASTM sizing charts with body measurements in each body shape group. Further, the study contributes to the body-related literature by filling gaps in missing whole BS categories among overweight and obese females.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Peter Njagi Kirimi, Samuel Nduati Kariuki and Kennedy Nyabuto Ocharo

This study analyzed the moderating effect of bank size on the relationship between financial soundness and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya.

Abstract

Purpose

This study analyzed the moderating effect of bank size on the relationship between financial soundness and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed data from 39 commercial banks for ten years from 2009 to 2018. Panel data regression model was used to analyze data.

Findings

The study results established a negative moderating effect of bank size on the relationship between commercial banks' financial soundness and net interest margin (NIM) and return on assets (ROA) with the results indicating a correlation coefficient of −0.1699 and −0.218, respectively. However, an absence of moderating effect was established when return on equity (ROE) was used as a measure of financial performance.

Practical implications

The paper finding recommends that banks' management and other policy makers should consider the effect of bank size while devising financial soundness policies to ensure optimal level of banks' financial soundness aimed at improving banks' financial performance. In addition, bankers associations should come up with policies to standardize asset quality management practices to ensure continuous positive performance of the banking sector.

Originality/value

The study shows the contribution and applicability of the theory of production in the banking sector.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Kurt A. Wurthmann

This study aims to provide a new method for precisely sizing photovoltaic (PV) arrays for standalone, direct pumping PV Water Pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation purposes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a new method for precisely sizing photovoltaic (PV) arrays for standalone, direct pumping PV Water Pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

The method uses historical weather data and considers daily variability in regional temperatures and rainfall, crop evapotranspiration rates and seasonality effects, all within a nonparametric bootstrapping approach to synthetically generate daily rainfall and crop irrigation needs. These needs define the required daily supply of pumped water to achieve a user-specified level of reliability, which provides the input to an intuitive approach for PV array sizing. An economic comparison of the costs for the PVWP versus a comparably powered diesel generator system is provided.

Findings

Pumping 22.8646 m³/day of water would meet the pasture crop irrigation needs on a one-acre (4046.78 m²) tract of land in South Florida, with 99.9% reliability. Given the specified assumptions, an 8.4834 m² PV array, having a peak power of 1.1877 (kW), could provide the 1.2347 (kWh/day) of hydraulic energy needed to supply this volume over a total head of 20 meters. The PVWP system is the low-cost option when diesel prices are above $0.90/liter and total installed PV array costs are fixed at $2.00/Watt peak power or total installed PV array costs are below $1.50/Watt peak power and diesel prices are fixed at $0.65/liter.

Originality/value

Because the approach is not dependent on the shapes of the sampling distributions for regional climate factors and can be adapted to consider different types of crops, it is highly portable and applicable for precisely determining array sizes for standalone, direct pumping PVWP systems for irrigating diverse crop types in diverse regions.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Jayen B. Patel

The purpose of this paper is to compare recent performance of small firms with that of large firms in developed and emerging stock markets.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare recent performance of small firms with that of large firms in developed and emerging stock markets.

Design/methodology/approach

T‐tests as well as Wilcoxon Signed Rank test statistics are utilized to test the differences in returns between stock indices. Additionally, ANOVA and median test statistics were conducted to test differences in size premiums over years. Finally, t‐tests as well as Mann‐Whitney U test statistics were conducted to examine the differences in size premiums by market conditions and January over non‐January months.

Findings

It was found that small firms did not generate significantly different returns than large firms in recent years. More specifically, size premiums were not sensitive to market conditions and were not significantly higher in January over non‐January months. These results indicate stock markets no longer exhibit a size effect or a reverse size effect.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the finance literature by examining the size effect as well as the reverse size effect in developed and emerging stock markets on recent data.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Sang Sup Cho

This study aims to estimate the firm size distributions that belong to the service sector and manufacturing sector in Korea.

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2994

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to estimate the firm size distributions that belong to the service sector and manufacturing sector in Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

When estimating the firm size distribution, the author considers the following two major factors. First, the firm size distribution can have a gamma distribution rather than traditional accepted distributions such as Pareto distribution or log-normal distribution. In particular, industry-specific enterprises can have different size distributions of the type of gamma distribution. Second, the firm size distribution that is applied to this study’s data set should reflect a number of factors. For example, estimating mixture gamma distribution for firm size distribution should be required and compared, because the total amount of configuration data is composed of small businesses, medium-sized and large companies.

Findings

Using 8,230 number of firm data in 2013, the author estimates mixture gamma distribution for the firm size.

Originality/value

From the comparison, empirical results are found for the following characteristics of core firm size distribution: first, the firm size distribution of the manufacturing sector has a longer tail than firm size distribution of the service sector. Second, the manufacturing firm size distribution dominates the entire country firm size distribution. Third, one factor among the three factors that make up the mixed gamma firm size distribution is described for 99 per cent of the firm size distributions. From the estimated firm size distributions of the service sector and manufacturing sector in Korea, the author simply implies the strategy and policy implications for the start-up firm.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2071-1395

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

C. Pat Obi

This article reviews the empirical accuracy of various alternatives for size used in measuring corporate performance. The primary focus is to expose inherent weaknesses in…

Abstract

This article reviews the empirical accuracy of various alternatives for size used in measuring corporate performance. The primary focus is to expose inherent weaknesses in usefully interpreting these size factors. The empirical performance of a number of size alternatives which are frequently used in the management literature is then analysed. Consistent with explanations offered by Coffman (1983) and in most other financial studies, the market value of equity is identified as the most robust single measure of corporate size. However, measures of size that are based on total capitalisation and sales performance, appear to provide increasing explanatory power.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 17 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

John F. Peters, Raju Kala and Robert S. Maier

A critical step toward an efficient contact detection algorithm is to localize the contact search to the immediate neighborhood of each particle. In particular, cell‐based…

Abstract

Purpose

A critical step toward an efficient contact detection algorithm is to localize the contact search to the immediate neighborhood of each particle. In particular, cell‐based algorithms are simple and require O(N) computations but become inefficient when the particles are not roughly the same diameter. The purpose of this paper is to describe a hierarchical search method with the simplicity and efficiency of the neighbor search algorithm but which is insensitive to size gradation.

Design/methodology/approach

In this method, particles are allocated to cells based on their location and size within a nested hierarchical cell space. Contact searches are limited to neighboring particles of equal size within their own hierarchy and occasionally with particles of larger size when no contacts are found within their own hierarchy.

Findings

The method is shown to be effective for the most severe case of highly segregated particle distributions in which a large particle is surrounded by particles of much smaller size.

Originality/value

This paper is of value in concentrating on particular issues in implementing the hierarchical contact detection algorithm in a parallel computing environment using message‐passing interface.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Frederick (Fengming) Song, Hui Tan and Yunfeng Wu

The Chinese stock market is a typical emerging market with special features that are very different from those of mature markets. The objective of this study is to…

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6032

Abstract

Purpose

The Chinese stock market is a typical emerging market with special features that are very different from those of mature markets. The objective of this study is to investigate whether and how these features affect the volatility‐volume relation for Chinese stocks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the roles of the number of trades, size of trades, and share volume in explaining the volatility‐volume relation in the Shanghai Stock Exchange with high frequency trade data used.

Findings

The results confirm that the volatility‐volume relation is driven mainly by the number of trades on the Chinese stock market. The number of trades explains the volatility‐volume relation better than the size of trades. Furthermore, some results are obtained that differ from those of mature markets, such as the US market. The results show that the second largest sized trades affect the volatility more than other trades on the Chinese market.

Originality/value

The results show that, in the Shanghai Stock Exchange, informed traders camouflage their private information or manipulation behavior through the second largest sized trades. The results may have important implications for work explaining the volatility‐volume relation on the Chinese stock market, further providing a reference by which to regulate emerging markets.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Mohd Arip Kasmo

Water supply is closely linked to forests. In developing countries, especially those in the tropics, large forest areas are cut down for timber, agriculture and…

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1416

Abstract

Water supply is closely linked to forests. In developing countries, especially those in the tropics, large forest areas are cut down for timber, agriculture and industries. The effect of deforestation on water sources could be examined through the study of the correlation between of the size of the forest clearing area and the size of the water in the dam and also the correlation between the size of the forest area and the size of the water area in the dam. Reports the finding of a study on the effect of deforestation of catchment areas and the ability of dams to sustain water during the dry season. Analyses images of the catchment areas obtained for nine consecutive years by satellites. The findings show that there is a negative correlation between the size of the forest clearing and the size of the water area in the dam and a positive correlation between the size of the forest areas and the size of the water areas.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

David J. Bryde and Brian Slocock

Describes research into attitudinal differences between small‐sized and medium/large‐sized organisations towards the benefits/limitations of obtaining certification for a…

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1379

Abstract

Describes research into attitudinal differences between small‐sized and medium/large‐sized organisations towards the benefits/limitations of obtaining certification for a quality management system (QMS) and differences between small‐sized and medium/large‐sized organisations in terms of the pressures driving organisations to seek certification. Presents details of prototype model building of characteristics of organisations either positive or negative towards a certified QMS approach. Fifty organisations were surveyed using a postal questionnaire. Finds some evidence of smaller‐sized organisations having more negative attitudes to QMS certification than medium/large‐sized organisations. Finds both small‐sized and medium/large‐sized organisations attach importance to internal reasons (i.e. a desire to improve internal efficiency) and external reasons (i.e. pressure from customers) in influencing the decision to seek certification. Suggests small‐sized manufacturing companies currently in the process of seeking certification are more likely to fit the model profile of organisations hostile to the QMS certification approach.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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