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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

David Besanko, Sarah Gillis and Sisi Shen

The years 2011, 2012, and 2013 witnessed both significant developments and setbacks in global polio eradication efforts. On the positive side, January 13, 2012, marked a…

Abstract

The years 2011, 2012, and 2013 witnessed both significant developments and setbacks in global polio eradication efforts. On the positive side, January 13, 2012, marked a full year since India had detected a case of wild poliovirus. On the negative side, polio continued to be endemic in three countries-Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria-and in those countries the goal of eliminating polio seemed more challenging than ever. Between December 2012 and January 2013, sixteen polio workers were killed in Pakistan, and in February 2013, nine women vaccinating children against polio in Kano, Nigeria, were shot dead by gunmen suspected of belonging to a radical Islamist sect. In addition, after a 95 percent decline in polio cases in 2010, the number of cases in Nigeria rebounded in 2011. Recognizing that polio was unlikely to be eliminated in these countries in the near term, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative moved its target date for eradication from 2013 to 2018.

These setbacks sparked a debate about the appropriate strategy for global eradication of polio. Indeed, some experts believed that recent setbacks were not caused by poor management but were instead the result of epidemiological characteristics and preconditions that might render polio eradication unachievable. These experts argued that global health efforts should focus on the control or elimination of polio rather than on the eradication of the disease.

This case presents an overview of polio and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and recounts the successful effort to eradicate smallpox. The case enables a rich discussion of the current global strategy to eradicate polio, as well as the issue of whether eradication is the appropriate global public health objective. More generally, the case provides a concrete example of a particular type of global public good, namely infectious disease eradication.

After analyzing and discussing the case, students will be able to:

  • Understand the nature of a global public good

  • Perform a back-of-the-envelope benefit-cost analysis of polio eradication

  • Discuss the appropriate strategy for eradicating an infectious disease

  • Apply game theory to analyzing which countries would be likely to contribute funds toward global polio eradication

  • Discuss the role of private organizations in the provision of global public goods

Understand the nature of a global public good

Perform a back-of-the-envelope benefit-cost analysis of polio eradication

Discuss the appropriate strategy for eradicating an infectious disease

Apply game theory to analyzing which countries would be likely to contribute funds toward global polio eradication

Discuss the role of private organizations in the provision of global public goods

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Walid M.A. Ahmed

Over a short interval of time (i.e. 2011-2014), Egypt has experienced tectonic political shifts, including the toppling of a long-entrenched dictator, two presidential…

Abstract

Purpose

Over a short interval of time (i.e. 2011-2014), Egypt has experienced tectonic political shifts, including the toppling of a long-entrenched dictator, two presidential elections, and a military coup. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the impact of such events on the country’s equity market behaviour, both in terms of returns and volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set is composed of daily stock index closing prices for the overall market and top eight most actively traded sectors. To assess the impact of the considered events on the market and sector returns, an event study approach is applied. On the other hand, a univariate VAR-EGARCH model is employed to explore whether, and to what extent, volatilities at the market and sector levels respond to such events.

Findings

The results suggest that political uncertainty has a profound impact on the risk-return profiles of almost all market sectors, with different degrees of intensity. By and large, the price and volatility effects are most pronounced in banks, financial services excluding banks and chemicals sectors, whilst food and beverages as well as construction and materials sectors are found to be the least responsive to these events. The 2013 military coup turns out to be the most pervasive event impinging on the market and sector-specific indices.

Practical implications

The results have a number of practical implications that could be of interest to many parties involved. More specifically, with political dysfunction overshadowing business and investment activities in Egypt, genuine democratic reforms, which entail proper regard for human rights and the rule of law, must have the highest priority of policymakers, in order to secure a positive investment climate and to foster investor confidence. Furthermore, in tandem with considering other relevant factors, multinational companies need to have a thorough assessment of Egypt’s future political course and to develop more robust contingency plans to effectively combat potential threats generated by political vicissitudes.

Originality/value

To the author’s best knowledge, this study is the first attempt to empirically examine the price and volatility effects of the recent presidential events in Egypt, thereby contributing to the relevant literature in this area.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2012

Liangjun Su and Halbert L. White

We provide straightforward new nonparametric methods for testing conditional independence using local polynomial quantile regression, allowing weakly dependent data…

Abstract

We provide straightforward new nonparametric methods for testing conditional independence using local polynomial quantile regression, allowing weakly dependent data. Inspired by Hausman's (1978) specification testing ideas, our methods essentially compare two collections of estimators that converge to the same limits under correct specification (conditional independence) and that diverge under the alternative. To establish the properties of our estimators, we generalize the existing nonparametric quantile literature not only by allowing for dependent heterogeneous data but also by establishing a weak consistency rate for the local Bahadur representation that is uniform in both the conditioning variables and the quantile index. We also show that, despite our nonparametric approach, our tests can detect local alternatives to conditional independence that decay to zero at the parametric rate. Our approach gives the first nonparametric tests for time-series conditional independence that can detect local alternatives at the parametric rate. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that our tests perform well in finite samples. We apply our test to test for a key identifying assumption in the literature on nonparametric, nonseparable models by studying the returns to schooling.

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Riah Wiratningsih

The purpose of this paper is to share the author’s experience as an academic librarian for innovation services in library clinic of Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to share the author’s experience as an academic librarian for innovation services in library clinic of Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia. The emergence of the predatory journals, which have trapped victims, takes the role of the librarian as an information manager through the expertise’s required to become practicing professionals in implementing the knowledge, skills and experience.

Design/methodology/approach

The author draws upon own personal experiences as an academic librarian and presents evidence acquired through observations and conversations. This paper conducts a thorough literature review on how to implement innovation in library clinic services.

Findings

There are many academicians who have not been aware of the existence of predatory journals and many have been stuck into. Through the efforts of the library clinic, innovation will arise the ability to grasp information literacy and apply critical thinking skills.

Originality/value

Education and literacy as a key to the way to avoid mistakes in choosing an online journal. Hopefully, the library clinic services will minimize or avoid academicians to conduct transactions on the predatory journals.

Details

Library Management, vol. 39 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Mahmood Ahmed Momin, Deryl Northcott and Mohammed Hossain

This paper aims to investigate the greenhouse gas (GHG)-related disclosure trends, content and strategies of the eight most high GHG-emitting Chinese power companies, over…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the greenhouse gas (GHG)-related disclosure trends, content and strategies of the eight most high GHG-emitting Chinese power companies, over a period when government pressure to manage GHG emissions increased.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from the 2000-2009 annual reports, corporate social and environmental responsibility reports and websites of eight Chinese power companies. Content analysis results were supplemented with excerpts from documents written in English or Chinese. Legitimacy theory informed the interpretation of the findings.

Findings

GHG-related disclosures increased from 2002 when the Chinese Government ratified the Kyoto Protocol and promulgated stringent environmental regulations. However, some expected types of GHG-related disclosure were absent or rare. Disclosure practices were found to be underpinned by reputation management objectives and reflected a symbolic rather than substantive legitimation strategy.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the literature on GHG-related disclosures by carbon-intensive firms and points to the need for future research to examine such disclosures in different countries to appreciate the variety in practice.

Practical implications

While the Chinese Government appears to have driven the emergence of GHG-related disclosure practices, companies can effect improvement by expanding the scope and content of what they disclose. Also, the growing emphasis on website disclosures may present challenges in ensuring the reliability and assurance of GHG disclosures.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine GHG-related disclosure practices by Chinese power-generating companies, a sector crucial to managing the GHG effects of China’s significant economic growth.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Joko Mariyono

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of microcredit and agronomic technology on farm households’ prosperity, and to determine important factors affecting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of microcredit and agronomic technology on farm households’ prosperity, and to determine important factors affecting farmers’ access to microcredit and technology adoption in Indonesian intensive farming.

Design/methodology/approach

The focus of the study was farmers engaging with chili-based agribusiness in rural areas. Data for this study were compiled from a survey that interviewed 250 farm households. Samples of the study were randomly selected from chili farming community in three regions of Java during 2013–2014. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

Microcredit provided positive direct and indirect impacts on household prosperity. Microcredit indirectly impacted the well-being through the mediation of technology adoption. Farmers’ characteristics and agribusiness environment determined farmers’ decision to access microcredit and adopt advanced technology. Microcredit and technology have enhanced farmers’ well-being through pathways that enabled farmers to develop farming scale.

Practical implications

The government should offer more alternatives to advanced technology and flexible procedures of access to credit at the same time to ensure sustained pathways of rural economic growth in Indonesia.

Originality/value

This paper applied a SEM to a proposition of simultaneous causal interrelations among microcredit, technology and farmers’ prosperity.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 79 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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