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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Nadeem Ahmad, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Viola Vambol and Sergij Vambol

All those effluent streams having compromised characteristics pose negative effects on the environment either directly or indirectly. Health care facilities and hospitals also…

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Abstract

Purpose

All those effluent streams having compromised characteristics pose negative effects on the environment either directly or indirectly. Health care facilities and hospitals also generate a large amount of effluent like other industries containing harmful and toxic pharmaceutical residual compounds due to uncontrolled use of drugs, besides others. The occurrence of antibiotic in the environment is of utmost concern due to development of resistant genes. These get mixed up with ground and surface water due to lack of proper treatment of hospital wastewater. The effect of pharmaceutical compounds on human society and ecosystem as a whole is quite obvious. There are no strict laws regarding discharge of hospital effluent in many countries. Contrary to this, the authors do not have appropriate treatment facilities and solution to solve day by day increasing complexity of this problem. Moreover, water discharged from different health facilities having variable concentration often gets mixed with municipal sewage, thus remains partially untreated even after passing from conventional treatment plants. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the occurrences and fate of such harmful compounds, need of proper effluent management system as well as conventionally adopted treatment technologies nowadays all around the globe. This mini-review would introduce the subject, the need of the study, the motivation for the study, aim, objectives of the research and methodology to be adopted for such a study.

Design/methodology/approach

Hospital effluents consisting of pathogens, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, etc, including phenols, detergents, toxic elements like cyanide and heavy metals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), gadolinium (Gd), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), among others are commonly detected nowadays. These unwanted compounds along with emerging pollutants are generally not being regulated before getting discharged caused and spread of diseases. Various chemical and biological characteristics of hospital effluents are assessed keeping in the view the threat posed to ecosystem. Several research studies have been done and few are ongoing to explore the different characteristics and compositions of these effluent streams in comparison so as to suggest the suitable conventional treatment techniques and ways to manage the problem. Several antibiotic groups such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfa pyridine, trimethoprim, metronidazole and their metabolites are reported in higher concentration in hospital effluent. The aquatic system also receives a high concentration of pharmaceutical residues more than 14,000 μg/L from treatment plants also and other surface water or even drinking water in Indian cities. Many rivers in southern parts of India receives treated water have detected high concentration drugs and its metabolites. As far as global constraints that need to be discussed, there are only selected pharmaceuticals compounds generally analyzed, issue regarding management and detection based on method of sampling, frequency of analysis and observation, spatial as well as temporal concentration of these concerned micropollutants, accuracy in detecting these compounds, reliability of results and predictions, prioritization and the method of treatment in use for such type of wastewater stream. The complexity of management and treatment as well need to be addressed with following issues at priority: composition and characterization of effluent, compatible and efficient treatment technology that needs to be adopted and the environment risk posed by them. The problem of drugs and its residues was not seen to be reported in latter part of 20th century, but it might be reported locally in some part of globe. This paper covers some aspect about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays various industries and monitoring the efficiencies of existing treatment systems. This mini-review would introduce the subject, the need, the motivation and objectives of the study and methodology can be adopted for such a study.

Findings

The compiled review gives a complete view about the types of antibiotics used in different health care facilities, their residue formation, occurrences in different ecosystems, types of regulations or laws available in different counties related to disposal, different type of treatment technologies, innovative combined treatment schemes and future action needed to tackle such type of effluent after its generation. The thesis also highlights the use of certain innovative materials use for the treatment like nanoparticles. It also discusses about the residues impact on the human health as well as their bioaccumulative nature. If the authors relate the past to the current scenario of pharmaceutical compounds (PhACs) in the environment, the authors will certainly notice that many diseases are nowadays not curable by simple previously prescribed Ab. Many research projects have been done in European countries that have shown the risk of such residues like Pills, Sibell, Poseidon, No pills, Neptune, Knappe, Endetech, etc. In the previous section, it was mentioned that there are no stringent laws for hospital wastewater and in many countries, they are mixed with domestic wastewater. Many difficulties are there with this research due to complex analysis, detection of targeted Ab, affecting waterbodies rate of flow, nature of treatment varies with season to season. The way nature is being degraded and harmful effect are being imposed, it is important to take immediate and decisive steps in this area. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serves as a nursery for antibiotic-resistant systems, hence monitoring with great attention is also needed. Many trials with different treatment process, in combination, were considered. Many countries are paying great attention to this topic by considering the severity of the risk involved in it.

Research limitations/implications

Previous studies by several scientists show that the pharmaceutical residues in the discharged effluent displayed direct toxic effects, and sometimes, detrimental effects in the mixture were also observed. The discharge of untreated effluent from hospitals and pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the natural ecosystem poses a significant threat to human beings. The pharmaceuticals, like antibiotics, in the aquatic environment, accelerate the development of the antibiotic-resistant genes in bacteria, which causes fatal health risks to animals and human beings. Others, like analgesics, are known to affect development in fishes. They also degrade the water quality and may lead to DNA damage, toxicity in lower organisms like daphnia and have the potential to bioaccumulate. A few commonly used nanoadsorbents for water and wastewater treatment along with their specific properties can also be used. The main advantages of them are high adsorption capacity and superior efficiency, their high reusability, synthesis at room temperatures, super magnetism, quantum confinement effect as well as eco-toxicity. This review will focus on the applicability of different nanoscale materials and their uses in treating wastewater polluted by organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the use of various nanoadsorbents and nano-based filtration membranes is also examined.

Practical implications

A number of different pharmaceutical residues derived from various activities like production facilities, domestic use and hospitals have been reported earlier to be present in groundwater, effluents and rivers, they include antibiotics, psycho-actives, analgesics, illicit drugs, antihistamine, etc. In past few years environmental scientists are more concerned toward the effluents generated from medical care facilities, community health centers and hospitals. Various chemical and biological characteristics of hospital effluents have been assessed keeping in the view the common threats pose by them to the entire ecosystem. In this study, seven multispecialty hospitals with nonidentical pretreatment were selected for three aspects i.e. conventional wastewater characteristics, high priority pharmaceuticals and microbial analyses. The present work is to evaluate efficacy of advanced wastewater treatment methods with regard to removal of these three aspects from hospital effluents before discharge into a sewage treatment plant (STP). Based on test results, two out of seven treatment technologies, i.e. MBR and CW effectively reducing conventional parameters and pharmaceuticals from secondary and tertiary treatments except regeneration of microbes were observed in tertiary level by these two treatments.

Social implications

This review has aimed to identify the emerging contaminants, including pharmaceutical residues, highly consumed chemicals that are present in the hospital effluent, along with their physicochemical and biological characteristics. In this, the main objective was to review the occurrences and fate of common drugs and antibiotics present in effluents from hospital wastewaters. As far as global constraints that need to be discussed, there are only selected pharmaceuticals compounds generally analyzed, issue regarding management and detection based on method of sampling, frequency of analysis and observation, spatial as well as temporal concentration of these concerned micropollutants, accuracy in detecting these compounds, reliability of results and predictions, prioritization and the method of treatment in use for such type of wastewater stream are among the major issues (Akter et al., 2012; Ashfaq et al., 2016; García-Mateos et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014; Mubedi et al., 2013; Prabhasankar et al., 2016; Sun et al., 2016; Suriyanon et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016; Wen et al., 2004). This paper covers some aspect about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays.

Originality/value

This study many multispecialty hospitals with nonidentical pretreatment were selected for three aspects i.e. conventional wastewater characteristics high priority pharmaceuticals and microbial analyses. The present work is to evaluate efficacy of advanced wastewater treatment methods with regard to removal of these three aspects from hospital effluents before discharge into an STP. Based on test results, two out of different treatment effectively reducing conventional parameters and pharmaceuticals from secondary and tertiary treatments except regeneration of microbes were observed in the tertiary level by these two treatments were studies followed by ozonation and ultraviolet-ray treatment.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Nadeem Ahmad Khan, Saif Ullah Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Izharul Haq Farooqi, Arshad Hussain, Sergij Vambol and Viola Vambol

The purpose of this paper is to cover some aspects about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to cover some aspects about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to large and variety of antibiotics available in the market nowadays it is difficult to control its use, thereby risking the whole ecosystem and its components. The regulation pattern is variable depending upon the various factors in different countries. The permissible limit of these emerging pollutants found in sewage as compared to in hospital effluent streams having active pharmaceutical ingredients is very narrow and is a debatable issue.

Findings

The disparity in the available legislation for hospital waste management in different countries makes it difficult to compare pro’s and con’s of methods adopted. Strict laws need to be framed for hospital wastewater management and its treatment, as it contains harmful compounds in higher concentrations resulting in development of resistant genes. The guideline applicable nowadays makes it clear that, specific management guidelines with respect to HWW, but also indicate certain characteristics that can be represented to specify their nature and indicator.

Research limitations/implications

Determination of effluent characteristic for each specialized treatment need to be analyzed for meeting the framed regulatory standards. Up-gradation of existing treatment facilities, adopting new technologies and improving operation, maintained is a viable option. As there are no specific treatment schemes available hence combination and optimization of treatment methods may solve the problem to certain extent.

Practical implications

There is some flexibility also there so that law framework can be modified accordingly. For any health facilities direct discharges into natural water bodies it effluent need to follow national discharge standards. These are quite strict as compared to indirect standards and generally not meet by such facilities. This is quite logical because they are not being monitored or treated by municipal systems.

Social implications

The law indicates that hospital needed to collect and treat effluent according to the treatment standards. But on other hand the law was made making it consideration about the HWW collection in water bodies.

Originality/value

The best way of management as described, is to treat HWW onsite-dividing into primary, secondary and tertiary. The document also provides details about sludge disposal, possible reuse, including the application of new and innovative treatment technologies for HWW. It also provides guidance for minimum approach for HWW management because developing countries patients do not have proper sanitation facilities.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Najma Sadiq

The restrictive measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic put a halt to everything across the world. The global crisis hit every sphere of life. The mobility restrictive nature of…

Abstract

The restrictive measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic put a halt to everything across the world. The global crisis hit every sphere of life. The mobility restrictive nature of the pandemic was a major blow to the travel, tourism and hospitality industry. For a country like Pakistan, with an unstable economy and struggling tourism, the pandemic served as ground zero. This chapter critically examines tourism dimensions in Pakistan and how it sustained the impact of various crises. It pays attention to the concepts of vulnerability, social and community resilience, and adaptive capacity to provide a theoretical understanding of the revival of tourism in Pakistan. It also considers the impact of COVID-led measures on the tourism industry and corresponding initiatives of the government. The chapter concludes by arguing that Pakistan should carefully monitor and assess the current debates on tourism policies and practices. The chapter suggests that the national tourism strategy should incorporate a mechanism that can address tourism in crises in addition to addressing the environmental, socio-cultural and economic impact of tourism.

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Aisyah As-Salafiyah, Aam Slamet Rusydiana and Muhammad Isa Mustafa

This study aims to formulate an index formula for mosque empowerment based on Maqashid Syariah as a measuring tool for the level of mosque empowerment.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to formulate an index formula for mosque empowerment based on Maqashid Syariah as a measuring tool for the level of mosque empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative and quantitative approach (mixed method). Data collection techniques are carried out by in-depth interviews with experts consisting of academics, practitioners, scholars and regulators. The data analysis technique uses the Analytical Network Process (ANP) with Super Decision 2.10 software to construct the index model structure.

Findings

The results indicate that the mosque has a multi-field role, including in the fields of worship, social, education, politics, economy and culture. This study produces an index of mosque empowerment based on Maqashid Syariah, composed of sic criteria, namely, elements of Maqashid Syariah; protect religion, soul, mind, lineage, property and environment. The weighting results of the criteria indicate that maintaining religion is the main criterion with a weighted value of 0.209. Each of these criteria consists of five indicators. Of all indicators, environmental safety is the top priority, with a weighted value of 0.056.

Originality/value

This study is the first comprehensive study that discusses the mosque empowerment index by weighting the ANP method to produce an index of mosque empowerment based on Maqashid Syariah.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 May 2024

Courage Simon Kofi Dogbe, Kennedy Kofi Ablornyi, Wisdom Wise Kwabla Pomegbe and Evans Duah

This study aims to examine how ethical leadership enhances the relationship between employee ethical behaviour and the job performance of employees in state-owned enterprises…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how ethical leadership enhances the relationship between employee ethical behaviour and the job performance of employees in state-owned enterprises (SOEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This study was a survey, with data collected using a structured questionnaire. The study focused on employees from SOEs in Ghana. The sample covers 238 employees drawn from 10 SOEs. Data was analyzed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The study concludes that employee ethical behaviour positively influenced the job performance of employees of SOEs in Ghana. The effect of ethical leadership on employee job performance was positively significant. Finally, ethical leadership positively moderated the effect of employee ethical behaviour on the job performance of employees of SOEs.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should look at identifying the specific behaviours of ethical employees that influence improved job performance. Also, future research could conduct a comparative study of private-owned enterprises and SOEs.

Practical implications

Attention should also be paid to ethical leadership, as it strongly enhanced both employee job performance and the quality of employee ethical behaviour required for increased job performance of employees.

Originality/value

Extant studies have paid limited attention to understanding how the interaction between employee ethical behaviour and ethical leadership will enhance employee job performance.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Norhayati Rafida Abdul Rahim, Ismail Abdullah, Noor Azrina Yahya, Muhammad Nizam Awang, Siti Zubaidah Muhammad, Safiyyah Ahmad Sabri and Norfaizah Nadhrah Ahmad

This study aims to identify the negotiation parameters of needs for Halal talents in Malaysia and proffer solutions on the sustainability of halal talents in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the negotiation parameters of needs for Halal talents in Malaysia and proffer solutions on the sustainability of halal talents in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A focus group discussion was performed among seven Halal talents from the industries of various schemes. Using the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) analysis approach, a functional model, as well as causes and effect analysis, is generated by the participants. The model is translated into a contradiction matrix to obtain the necessary solutions in developing a sustainable framework for Halal Talents in Malaysia.

Findings

The cause-and-effect analysis reveals that poor career path, lack of training and poor salary structure are experienced by the participants.

Research limitations/implications

Having had vast categories of halal industries, this research focuses on nine schemes under halal certification JAKIM which excludes banking and tourism.

Practical implications

It is suggested that the implementation of mutual benefits should be in place to enhance positivism among Halal talents in the near future.

Originality/value

Unlike the social science approach, the use of TRIZ analysis provides a substantial framework of sustainability among halal talents in Malaysia.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib and Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid

The purpose of this strengths or weaknesses, and its external opportunities or threats (SWOT) analysis study on Halal logistics industry in Malaysia is to identify SWOT in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this strengths or weaknesses, and its external opportunities or threats (SWOT) analysis study on Halal logistics industry in Malaysia is to identify SWOT in the Halal logistics environment and to uncover strategies to leverage on the strengths and opportunities and rectifying the weaknesses as well as overcoming the threats.

Design/methodology/approach

This study comprises two methods: literature review and interviews. Extensive literature reviews were obtained from leading databases and the articles recorded matches or related with the keywords. In addition, the respondents from the interviews consist of middle- and top-level managers with reputable knowledge, expertise and experience in the Logistics and Halal industry. After the literature was reviewed and information was transcribed from the interviews, reduction techniques were used to group and summarize the variables into the four SWOT categories.

Findings

The SWOT categories, consisting of SWOT, are generated from the literature reviews and supported by the respondents’ views and vice versa. Examples of SWOT analyses done are as follows: strength (strong government support), weakness (inconsistent Halal definition), opportunity (Muslims’ population growth) and threat (no uniformity on Halal standards).

Research limitations/implications

The SWOT analysis done for this study only demonstrates the internal and external environments and not the assumption that they are certain to be correct, as they contain every imaginable matter in relation to Halal logistics. Plus, the analysis done does not show how to achieve competitive advantage, merely as a guideline and the SWOT analysis done may be outdated as the environments are constantly changing.

Practical implications

The study hopes to contribute in future studies and act as a guide for the Halal logistics players to have better understanding in their business environment.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind, to incorporate SWOT and Halal logistics. Hence, this study will add in more value to the existing academic research done on SWOT analysis and broadening the Halal and logistics business understanding, not only in Malaysia but globally as well.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Edib Smolo and Abubakar Muhammad Musa

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concepts of hilah (legal stratagem or legal trick) and makhraj (legal exit) and to examine their relevance and application in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concepts of hilah (legal stratagem or legal trick) and makhraj (legal exit) and to examine their relevance and application in the contemporary Islamic financial services and products.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the qualitative research approach to provide a theoretical overview of hilah and makhraj literally and technically and to examine their practical applications in Islamic financial products and services. In particular, this paper evaluates several Islamic financial contracts and examines its practices in light of the implications of hilah or makhraj.

Findings

The paper finds that there is a glaring difference in perception and application of hilah and makhraj, as argued by some scholars. It has been found that the principle of hilah has been extensively used in the Islamic finance industry as a way to circumvent the riba prohibition. For example, Islamic financial instruments such as bay’ bithaman al-ajil, bay’ al-‘inah, tawarruq, commodity murabahah, musharakah mutanaqisah and, in some cases, the sale and lease back sukuk are found to be tainted by hilah.

Research limitations/implications

Because this is a theoretical paper, it should be explored in more detail, and critical analysis of Islamic financial services and products should be reviewed in line with these two principles to ascertain if the products and services are in line with Shariah requirements and devoid of hilah practices or not and to align the industry with the maqasid al-Shariah.

Practical implications

This paper identifies a serious challenge that Islamic finance practitioners face in product development in their effort to provide more competitive services to their customers. As a result, it demonstrates the need to proactively use makhraj in innovating Islamic financial products and proffering more sustainable and competitive solutions.

Originality/value

This paper discusses a topic that attempts to dispel the suspicious perceptions of some analysts as to the genuineness of Islamic financial practices.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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