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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

K.M. Fan, W.L. Cheung and I. Gibson

The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the movement of the powder bed material during selective laser sintering (SLS) of bisphenol‐A polycarbonate (PC…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the movement of the powder bed material during selective laser sintering (SLS) of bisphenol‐A polycarbonate (PC) powder and its effect on the morphology of the sintered specimen.

Design/methodology/approach

Two sintering experiments, i.e. single‐spot laser sintering and raster‐scan laser sintering, were carried out and the material movement mechanisms were investigated in situ and subsequently by scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

During the raster‐scan laser sintering process, the movement of the powder was found to be primarily perpendicular to the scanning direction. When sintering at a high laser power, it significantly affected the surface morphology of the sintered specimens and parallel surface bands occurred along the scanning direction.

Research limitations/implications

Experiments were carried out on a modified laser engraving machine rather than a commercial SLS machine.

Practical implications

A schematic model of the material movement mechanism for each of the sintering strategies is presented.

Originality/value

The results further the understanding of the sintering behaviour of the powder bed.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2022

Shahrooz Sadeghi Borujeni, Gursimran Singh Saluja and Vasily Ploshikhin

This study aims at compensating for sintering deformation of components manufactured by metal binder jetting (MBJ) technology.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at compensating for sintering deformation of components manufactured by metal binder jetting (MBJ) technology.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present research, numerical simulations are used to predict sintering deformation. Subsequently, an algorithm is developed to counteract the deformations, and the compensated deformations are morphed into a CAD model for printing. Several test cases are designed, compensated and manufactured to evaluate the accuracy of the compensation calculations. A consistent accuracy measurement method is developed for both green and sintered parts. The final sintered parts are compared with the desired final shape, and the accuracy of the model is discussed. Furthermore, the effect of initial assumptions in the calculations, including green part densities, and green part dimensions on the final dimensional accuracy are studied.

Findings

The proposed computational framework can compensate for the sintering deformations with acceptable accuracy, especially in the directions, for which the used material model has been calibrated. The precise assumption of green part density values is important for the accuracy of compensation calculations. For achieving tighter dimensional accuracy, green part dimensions should be incorporated into the computational framework.

Originality/value

Several studies have already predicted sintering deformations using numerical methods for MBJ parts. However, very little research has been dedicated to the compensation of sintering deformations with numerical simulations, and to the best of the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous work has studied the effect of green part properties on dimensional accuracy of compensation calculations. This paper introduces a method to omit or minimize the trial-and-error experiments and leads to the manufacturing of dimensionally accurate geometries.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Ahmed Bouchekhlal and Mohammed Boulesbaa

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the sintering temperature on the microstructural, morphological and electrical characteristics of Zinc oxide…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the sintering temperature on the microstructural, morphological and electrical characteristics of Zinc oxide (ZnO)-based varistors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a conventional method to design and produce ZnO varistors by sintering ZnO powder with small amounts of various metal oxides. Furthermore, the effect of sintering temperature on varistor properties of (Bi, Co, Cr, Sb, Mn)-doped ZnO ceramics was investigated in the range of 1280–1350 °C.

Findings

The obtained results showed an EB value of 2109.79 V/cm, a Vgb value of 0.831 V and a nonlinear coefficient (α) value of 19.91 for sample sintered at temperature of 1300 °C. In addition, the low value of tan δ at low frequency range confirmed that the grain boundaries created in 1300 °C sintering temperature were obviously good.

Originality/value

Based on the previous research on the ZnO-based varistors, a thorough study was carried out on these components to improve their electrical characteristics. Thus, it is necessary that those varistors have low leakage current and low value of dissipation factor to ensure their good quality. High breakdown fields and nonlinearity coefficients are also required in such kind of components. The effect of sintering temperature on the varistor properties of the new compositions (zinc, bismuth, manganese, chrome, cobalt, antimony and silicon oxides)-doped ZnO ceramics was studied in the range of 1280–1350 °C. Also, the microstructure and the phase evolution of the samples sintered at various temperatures (1280 °C, 1300 °C, 1320 °C and 1350 °C) were investigated according to X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope measurements.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2022

Tobia Romano, Emanuele Migliori, Marco Mariani, Nora Lecis and Maurizio Vedani

Binder jetting is a promising route to produce complex copper components for electronic/thermal applications. This paper aims to lay a framework for determining the…

Abstract

Purpose

Binder jetting is a promising route to produce complex copper components for electronic/thermal applications. This paper aims to lay a framework for determining the effects of sintering parameters on the final microstructure of copper parts fabricated through binder jetting.

Design/methodology/approach

The knowledge gained from well-established powder metallurgy processes was leveraged to study the densification behaviour of a fine high-purity copper powder (D50 of 3.4 µm) processed via binder jetting, by performing dilatometry and microstructural characterization. The effects of sintering parameters on densification of samples obtained with a commercial water-based binder were also explored.

Findings

Sintering started at lower temperature in cold-pressed (∼680 °C) than in binder jetted parts (∼900 °C), because the strain energy introduced by powder compression reduces the sintering activation energy. Vacuum sintering promoted pore closure, resulting in greater and more uniform densification than sintering in argon, as argon pressure stabilizes the residual porosity. About 6.9% residual porosity was obtained with air sintering in the presence of graphite, promoting solid-state diffusion by copper oxide reduction.

Originality/value

This paper reports the first systematic characterization of the thermal events occurring during solid-state sintering of high-purity copper under different atmospheres. The results can be used to optimize the sintering parameters for the manufacturing of complex copper components through binder jetting.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Chuansheng Wang, Ning Cai, Dewei Zhang, Jinxiu Zhang, Tianhao Chang, Shaoming Li, Yuqi Chao and Jiquan Hu

This purpose of this study was to develop a 3D printer based on powder particle. The best degreasing and sintering process of a blank body was investigated to obtain a…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this study was to develop a 3D printer based on powder particle. The best degreasing and sintering process of a blank body was investigated to obtain a metal product with high precision and high surface finish. This process will greatly reduce the difficulty and cost of forming a complex metal product with high application value.

Design/methodology/approach

Stainless steel powder and polymer materials were mixed using a rubber mixing machine. The powders were granulated to prepare a mixed material. A powder feed 3D printer was used at low temperature (about 200°C) to print and degrease the body. A series of sintering experiments were performed to study the different sintering temperatures, and the physical and mechanical properties of the sample sintered under various conditions were compared to determine the best degreasing and sintering process.

Findings

The reaction at 1,370°C was the optimal route for the metal billet degreasing. The resulting metal products had fine structure and stable performance compared with the products with traditional powder metallurgy composition.

Originality/value

Most 3D printed metal powder materials rely on imports, which are expensive and increase the manufacturing cost. These drawbacks limit the application and development of metal 3D printing technology to a certain extent. The successful study of this molding method greatly reduces the difficulty and cost of forming complex metal products with high application value. This report will provide valuable guidance for sintering process and forming methods.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2018

Justin Nussbaum and Nathan B. Crane

Projection sintering, a system for selectively sintering large areas of polymer powder simultaneously with a high-power projector is introduced. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Projection sintering, a system for selectively sintering large areas of polymer powder simultaneously with a high-power projector is introduced. This paper aims to evaluate the suitability of laser sintering (LS) process parameters for projection sintering, as it uses substantially lower intensities, longer exposure times and larger areas than conventional LS.

Design/methodology/approach

The tradeoffs in sintering outcomes are evaluated by creating single layer components with varied exposure times and optical intensities. Some of these components were cross-sectioned and evaluated for degree of densification, while the single-layer thickness and the maximum tensile force was measured for the rest.

Findings

Shorter exposure times and higher intensities can create thicker and therefore stronger parts than when equal energy is applied over longer exposures. This is different from LS in which energy input (Andrew’s Number) is accepted as a reliable process variable. This difference is likely because significant thermal energy is lost from the sintering region during the exposure time – resulting in reduced peak temperatures. These thermal losses can be offset by imparting additional energy through increased exposure time or light intensity.

Practical implications

Most methods for evaluating LS process parameters, such as the energy melt ratio and Andrew’s Number, estimate energy input from basic process parameters. These methods do not account for thermal losses and assume that the powder absorbs all incident light. These methods become increasingly inaccurate for projection sintering with visible light where exposure times are much higher (>1s) and a larger portion of the light is reflected from the power’s surface. Understanding the appropriate sintering criteria is critical for the development of long-exposure sintering.

Originality/value

A new method of selectively sintering large areas is introduced that could sinter a wider variety of materials by enabling longer sintering times and may increase productivity relative to LS. This work shows that new processing parameters are required for projection sintering as traditional LS process parameters are inadequate.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2018

Jan Felba

This paper aims to find proper technological parameters of low-temperature joining technique by silver sintering to eventually use this technique for reliable electronic packaging.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to find proper technological parameters of low-temperature joining technique by silver sintering to eventually use this technique for reliable electronic packaging.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the literature and author’s own experience, the factors influencing the nanosized Ag particle sintering results were identified, and their significance was assessed.

Findings

It has been shown that some important technological parameters clearly influence the quality of the joints, and their choice is unambiguous, but the meaning of some parameters is dependent on other factors (interactions), and they should be selected experimentally.

Originality/value

The value of this research is that the importance of all technological factors was analyzed, which makes it easy to choose the technological procedures in the electronic packaging.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

P. Regenfuss, A. Streek, L. Hartwig, S. Klötzer, Th. Brabant, M. Horn, R. Ebert and H. Exner

The purpose of the paper is the elucidation of certain mechanisms of laser material processing in general and laser micro sintering in particular. One major intention is…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is the elucidation of certain mechanisms of laser material processing in general and laser micro sintering in particular. One major intention is to emphasize the synergism of the various effects of q‐switched laser pulses upon metal and ceramic powder material and to point out the non‐equilibrium character of reaction steps.

Design/methodology/approach

Recent results and observations, obtained in development of “laser micro sintering,” are surveyed and analyzed. By breaking down the overall process into relevant steps and considering their possible kinetics, an approach is made towards interpreting specific phenomena of laser micro sintering. Thermodynamics upon heating of the material as well as its photo‐electronic response to the incident radiation are considered.

Findings

The findings corroborate a model whereby short pulses of high intensity provide non‐equilibrium pressure conditions at the location of incidence, that allow for the melting of metal powder with an almost immediate expansion of a plasma and/or vapor bulb. Thereby the molten material is condensed and propelled towards the substrate. A final boiling eruption after each pulse is the reason for the morphology of the laser micro‐sintered surfaces and can prevent oxidation when the process is conducted under normal atmosphere. In sintering of ceramics, the short pulsed and intensive radiation increases the chance to excite the material even with photon energies below the bandgap value and it lowers the risk of running into a destructive avalanche.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the stochastic character of the respective sintering event, that is initiated by each individual pulse, the gathered data are not suitable yet for the formulation of an exact quantitative function between sintering behavior and laser parameters.

Practical implications

The qualitative findings yield a good rule of thumb for the choice of parameters in laser sintering on a micrometer scale and the model is conducive for advanced interpretation of other phenomena in laser material processing besides sintering.

Originality/value

The kinetics and thermodynamics of laser sintering with q‐switched pulses are approached by a qualitative explanation. The heterogeneous and non‐equilibrium character of the processes is taken into account; this character is often neglected by researchers in the area.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Peter Lukacs, Alena Pietrikova and Pavol Cabuk

The purpose of this paper is to find optimal sintering conditions of silver-based nano-inks for achieving the high electrical conductivity of the deposited layers applied…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find optimal sintering conditions of silver-based nano-inks for achieving the high electrical conductivity of the deposited layers applied on polyimide foils as well as the influence of ageing on the electrical conductivity. Therefore, the investigation in the field of silver layers deposited by inkjet printing technology is presented in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The four-point resistance measurements were realized for a detailed and precise analysis of the resistance of two different silver layers under different sintering conditions depending on the type of nano-ink varied about the recommended values. Highly accelerated stress tests (HASTs) were also applied as an ageing method for confirmation of the high electrical stability of the silver layers.

Findings

The results prove the strong influence of the temperature and the time of the sintering process on the sheet resistance of the investigated silver-based layers deposited by inkjet printing technology on polyimide foils. The HASTs caused significant changes in the electrical conductivity for both nano-inks presented in this paper. The existence of noticeable dependence among the resistivity, thermal treatment and ageing was proved.

Originality/value

The main benefit lays in the optimization of sintering conditions to improve the electrical conductivity of the silver layers. The paper also presents a new approach for a stability analysis of the silver layers by HASTs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 February 2019

Yang Liu, Hao Zhang, Lingen Wang, Xuejun Fan, Guoqi Zhang and F. Sun

Crack and stress distribution on dies are key issues for the pressure-assisted sintering bonding of power modules. The purpose of this research is to build a relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Crack and stress distribution on dies are key issues for the pressure-assisted sintering bonding of power modules. The purpose of this research is to build a relationship among stress distributions, sintering sequences and sintering pressures during the sintering processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Three sintering sequences, S(a), S(b) and S(c), have been designed for the double-side assembly of power module in this paper. Experiments and finite element method (FEM) analysis are conducted to investigate the crack and stress distribution.

Findings

The sintering sequence had significant effects on the crack generation in the chips during the sintering process under 30-MPa pressure. The simulation results revealed that the module sintered by S(a) showed lower chip stress than those by the other two sintering sequences under 30 MPa. In contrast, the chip stress is the highest when the sintering sequence follows S(b). The simulation results explained the crack generation and prolongation in the experiments. S(a) was recommended as the best sintering sequence because of the lowest chip stress and highest yield rate.

Originality/value

This study investigated the stress distributions of the double-side sintered power modules under different sintering pressures. Based on the results of experiments and FEM analysis, the best sintering sequence design is provided under various sintering pressures.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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