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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Rajendran Selvamani, M. Mahaveer Sree Jayan and Farzad Ebrahimi

The purpose of this paper is concerned with the study of nonlinear ultrasonic waves in a magneto-flexo-thermo (MFT) elastic armchair single-walled carbon nanotube (ASWCNT…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is concerned with the study of nonlinear ultrasonic waves in a magneto-flexo-thermo (MFT) elastic armchair single-walled carbon nanotube (ASWCNT) resting on polymer matrix.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model is developed for the analytical study of nonlinear ultrasonic waves in a MFT elastic armchair single walled carbon nanotube rested on polymer matrix using Euler beam theory. The analytical formulation is developed based on Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory to account small scale effect. After developing the formal solution of the mathematical model consisting of partial differential equations, the frequency equations have been analysed numerically by using the nonlinear foundations supported by Winkler-Pasternak model. The solution is obtained by ultrasonic wave dispersion relations.

Findings

From the literature survey, it is evident that the analytical formulation of nonlinear ultrasonic waves in an MFT elastic ASWCNT embedded on polymer matrix is not discussed by any researchers. So, in this paper the analytical solutions of nonlinear ultrasonic waves in an MFT elastic ASWCNT embedded on polymer matrix are studied. Parametric studies is carried out to scrutinize the influence of the nonlocal scaling, magneto-electro-mechanical loadings, foundation parameters, various boundary condition and length on the dimensionless frequency of nanotube. It is noticed that the boundary conditions, nonlocal parameter and tube geometrical parameters have significant effects on dimensionless frequency of nanotubes.

Originality/value

This paper contributes the analytical model to find the solution of nonlinear ultrasonic waves in an MFT elastic ASWCNT embedded on polymer matrix. It is observed that the increase in the foundation constants raises the stiffness of the medium and the structure is able to attain higher frequency once the edge condition is C-C followed by S-S. Further, it is noticed that the natural frequency is arrived below 1% in both local and nonlocal boundary conditions in the presence of temperature coefficients. Also, it is found that the density and Poisson ratio variation affects the natural frequency with below 2%. The results presented in this study can provide mechanism for the study and design of the nano devices such as component of nano oscillators, micro wave absorbing, nano-electron technology and nano-electro--magneto-mechanical systems that make use of the wave propagation properties of ASWCNTs embedded on polymer matrix.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Reza Ansari, Mahdi Mirnezhad, Hessam Rouhi and Majid Bazdid-Vahdati

Based on the molecular mechanics approach, the purpose of this paper is to analytically investigate the torsional buckling behavior of single-walled silicon carbide…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the molecular mechanics approach, the purpose of this paper is to analytically investigate the torsional buckling behavior of single-walled silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) with different values of diameter and chiral angles.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, the mechanical properties and atomic structure of a silicon carbide (SiC) sheet are evaluated based on the density functional theory (DFT) within the framework of the generalized gradient approximation. After that force constants of the total potential energy are theoretically obtained through establishing a linkage between the viewpoints of the quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics. Explicit expressions are presented to obtain the critical buckling shear strain corresponding to different types of chirality. The present model is capable to calculate the torsional buckling behavior of SiCNTs related to various chiral angles. The critical buckling shear strain is obtained for various types of chirality and compared with each other.

Findings

It is concluded that for all diameters, zigzag nanotubes are more stable than armchair ones. Besides it is found that the minimum critical buckling shear strain is for nanotubes with (n, n/2) chiral vector.

Originality/value

Investigating the torsional buckling behavior of single-walled SiCNTs with different values of diameter and chiral angle. Obtaining the mechanical properties and atomic structure of the SiC sheet based on the DFT calculations. Establishing a linkage between the molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics and obtaining the force constants of the molecular mechanics. Presenting the closed-form expression to calculate the critical buckling shear strain of single-walled SiCNTs corresponding to various types of chirality.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Andrew Wright

Wearable electronics is an emerging technology predicted to become a 50B$ industry by 2018. Components and circuits will be highly integrated into clothing and other…

Abstract

Purpose

Wearable electronics is an emerging technology predicted to become a 50B$ industry by 2018. Components and circuits will be highly integrated into clothing and other apparel. One crucial factor is the need for highly robust, flexible printed circuit tracks with sufficiently high electrical conductivity. The fact that metal-based tracks tend to suffer from fatigue failure has driven the development of alternative materials. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Alternative materials are organic conductors and carbon nanotubes. The latter has a great flexibility and intrinsic strength. While nanotubes can be solubilised and printed using ink-jet techniques, this usually requires polymer additives. The paper has therefore sought to develop a novel solvent-free dry-ink.

Findings

The paper has found that it is possible to directly transfer from a nanotube growth substrate, via a hard print stamp head, onto a flexible rubber substrate and that one loading of the stamp can give many individual prints before exhaustion: the dry-ink stamp face effectively de-layers by a set amount each time a print is made. Many consecutive, highly consistent and uniform prints can be made using this approach. When printed onto natural rubber, the printed tracks are very robust and can be stretched to 100 per cent strain without permanent damage. The electrical conductivity can be improved by a simple alcohol treatment to consolidate the fibers and by iodine doping reaching 38 S · cm−1.

Originality/value

The findings offer an economical way to print highly robust electrically conductive tracks of carbon nanotubes directly onto flexible substrates.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Stelios K. Georgantzinos, G. I. Giannopoulos, P. K. Pierou and N. K. Anifantis

A computational structural mechanics approach, based on the exclusive use of standard bar elements is utilized in order to investigate the elastic stability of…

Abstract

Purpose

A computational structural mechanics approach, based on the exclusive use of standard bar elements is utilized in order to investigate the elastic stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with atom vacancy defects under axial compressive loads. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model uses three dimensional, two nodded, linear truss finite elements of three degrees of freedom per node to represent the force field appearing between carbon atoms due to the basic interatomic interactions.

Findings

Numerical results concerning the critical forces which cause instability of pristine nanotubes are compared with corresponding data given in the open literature in the effort to demonstrate the good accuracy of the method. Then, it is assumed that SWCNTs present-specific structural defects defined by their length, width, orientation and longitudinal position. The influence of these four geometric parameters of the imperfections considered on the stability of SWCNTs is investigated in detail and essential conclusions are revealed.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, is the first time that the specific method is introduced for the prediction of buckling behavior of defective SWCNTs. The structural defect here is considered as atoms vacancy that forms a like-crack defect having a specific length, width, orientation and position along the nanotube length.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Anand Y. Joshi, Satish C. Sharma and S.P. Harsha

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of chiral single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as mass sensors. Analysis of SWCNT with chiralities is performed using an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of chiral single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as mass sensors. Analysis of SWCNT with chiralities is performed using an atomistic finite element model based on a molecular structural mechanics approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The cantilever carbon nanotube (CNT) is modeled by considering it as a space frame structure similar to three‐dimensional beams and point masses. The elastic properties of the beam element are calculated by considering mechanical characteristics of covalent bonds between the carbon atoms in the hexagonal lattice. The mass of each beam element is assumed as point mass at nodes coinciding with carbon atoms. An atomistic simulation approach is used to find the natural frequencies and to study the effects of defect like atomic vacancies in CNTs on the resonant frequency. The migration of the atomic vacancies along the length is observed for different chiralities.

Findings

A reduction in the simulated natural frequency is observed with the maximum value occurring, when the vacancy is found nearer to the fixed end. It is quite evident from the simulation results that the effect of vacancies is significant, and the effect diminishes at 10−2 femtograms mass. Using the higher modes of vibration of SWCNT‐based mass sensors, the amount and the position of the mass on the nanotube can be identified.

Originality/value

CNT have been used as mass sensors extensively. The present approach is focused to explore the use of chiral SWCNT as sensing device with vacancy defect in it. The variation of the atomic vacancies in CNT along the length has been taken and is analyzed for different chiralities. The effects of defect like atomic vacancies in CNTs on the resonant frequency have been analyzed and observed that the maximum reduction in natural frequency occurs when the vacancy is found nearer to the fixed end due to large stiffness variation.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Andrea G. Chiariello, Carlo Forestiere, Giovanni Miano and Antonio Maffucci

Nowadays, nano-antennas or nanoscale absorbers made by innovative materials such as carbon nanotubes are gaining more and more interest, because of their outstanding…

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Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, nano-antennas or nanoscale absorbers made by innovative materials such as carbon nanotubes are gaining more and more interest, because of their outstanding features. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the scattering properties of carbon nanotubes, either isolated or arranged in arrays. The peculiar behaviour of such innovative materials is studied, taking also into account the finite length of the structure and the dependence of the scattering field from the operating temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

First a model is presented for the electrical transport along the carbon nanotubes, based on Boltzmann quasi-classical transport theory. The model includes quantistic and inertial phenomena observed in the carbon nanotube electrodynamics. The model also includes the effects of temperature. Using this electrodynamical model, the electromagnetic formulation of the scattering problem is cast in terms of a Pocklington-like equation. The numerical solution is obtained by means of the Galerkin method, with special care in handling the logarithmic singularity of the kernel. Case studies are carried out, either referred to isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and array of SWCNTs.

Findings

The scattering properties of SWCNT are strongly influenced by the temperature and by the distance between the tubes. As temperature increases, the amplitude of the resonance peaks decreases, at a rate which is double the rate of changes of temperature. The resonance frequencies are insensitive to temperature. As for the distance between the tubes in an array, it influence the scattering resonance introducing a shift in the resonance frequencies which is appreciable for distances lower than the semi-length of the CNT. For higher distances the CNT scattered field may be regarded as the sum of the fields emitted by each CNT, as if they were isolated.

Research limitations/implications

As far as now only SWCNTs have been studied. The multi-wall carbon nanotubes would show a richer behaviour with temperature, due to the joint effect of reduction of the mean free path and increase of the number of conducting channels, as temperature increases.

Practical implications

Possible use of carbon nanotubes as absorbing material or scatterers.

Originality/value

The model presented here is based on a self-consistent and physically meaningful description of the CNT electrodynamics, which takes rigorously into account the effect of temperature, size and chirality of each CNT.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

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Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

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51

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Shiuh-Chuan Her and Shou-Jan Liu

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties are considered to be ideal for reinforcing high-performance structures. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties are considered to be ideal for reinforcing high-performance structures. The interfacial stresses between the CNTs and surrounding matrix are important phenomena which critically govern the mechanical properties of CNTs-reinforced nanocomposites. A number of methods have been proposed to investigate the stress transfer across the CNT/matrix interface, such as experimental measurement and molecular dynamics (MDs). Experimental tests are difficulty and expensive. MDs simulations, on the other hand, are computationally inefficient. The purpose of this paper is to present a reasonably simplified model. Incorporating the simplified model, the analytical expressions of the interface stresses including the shear stress and longitudinal normal stress are obtained.

Design/methodology/approach

The analytical model consists of two concentric cylinders, namely a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) cylinder and a matrix cylinder, as the representative volume element (RVE). The interfacial stress analysis is performed using the shear lag model for the axisymmetric RVE. Analytical solutions for the normal stresses in the SWCNT and matrix, and the interfacial shear stress across the SWCNT/matrix interface are obtained. The proposed model has a great ability to theoretical prediction of the stress transfer between the matrix and CNTs.

Findings

In order to demonstrate the simulation capabilities of the proposed model, parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of the volume fraction of SWCNT and matrix modulus on the stress transfer. The axial stress in the matrix is decreasing with the increase of the volume fraction and decrease of the matrix modulus. As a result of more loads can be transferred to the SWCNT for a large volume fraction and small matrix modulus. These results show that using a large volume fraction and a small matrix modulus improves the efficiency of the stress transfer from the matrix to the CNTs.

Originality/value

A simple but accurate model using a simplified 2D RVE for characterizing the stress transfer in CNT-reinforced nanocomposites is presented. The predictions from the current method compare favourably with those by existing experimental, analytical and computational studies. The simple and explicit expressions of the interfacial stresses provide valuable analysis tools accessible to practical users.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Stylianos K. Georgantzinos, Georgios I. Giannopoulos and Nick K. Anifantis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes as mass sensors by developing analytical expressions and then comparing the outcome…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes as mass sensors by developing analytical expressions and then comparing the outcome with structural mechanics corresponding predictions.

Design/methodology/approach

The carbon nanotube (CNT) resonators are assumed to be either single or double clamped. Analytical formulas capable of describing the vibrational behavior of such CNT-based nanoresonators with an attached mass at nanotube tip or various intermediate positions are developed by combining the Euler–Bernoulli theory and Krylov–Duncan functions.

Findings

The validity and the accuracy of these formulas are examined for a wide range of cases via comparisons with corresponding results arisen by spring- or beam-based structural mechanics predictions. Both structural mechanics approaches utilize three-dimensional nanoscale elements formulated according to the molecular theory. The results indicate that the new sensor equations may be utilized for the estimation of vibration response of CNT-based mass sensors with reasonable accuracy.

Originality/value

Simple analytical formulas are proved to approximate the mass sensing ability of CNTs adequately, the fact that may significantly contribute in the effort of developing new sensor devices.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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