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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Robert Loo

Singleitem measures are quick and easy to use; however, methodologists advocate the use of multiple‐item measures. Recently, this stringent viewpoint has been challenged…

4437

Abstract

Singleitem measures are quick and easy to use; however, methodologists advocate the use of multiple‐item measures. Recently, this stringent viewpoint has been challenged. Using the classical formula for the correction for attenuation and job satisfaction data, they demonstrated that meaningful reliability estimates can be calculated for singleitem measures. This study examined this approach using “belief in a just world” data from two instruments. The findings provide qualified support for singleitem measures when the underlying constructs are homogeneous, but these findings are not strong enough to challenge the view that multiple‐item measures are needed to measure relatively complex constructs reliably. Practitioners and researchers should be wary of singleitem measures.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Jun-Hwa Cheah, Marko Sarstedt, Christian M. Ringle, T. Ramayah and Hiram Ting

Researchers often use partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to estimate path models that include formatively specified constructs. Their validation…

3785

Abstract

Purpose

Researchers often use partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to estimate path models that include formatively specified constructs. Their validation requires running a redundancy analysis, which tests whether the formatively measured construct is highly correlated with an alternative measure of the same construct. Extending prior knowledge in the field, this paper aims to examine the conditions favoring the use of single vs multiple items to measure the criterion construct in redundancy analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

Merging the literatures from a variety of fields, such as management, marketing and psychometrics, we first provide a theoretical comparison of single-item and multi-item measurement and offer guidelines for designing and validating suitable single items. An empirical comparison in the context of hospitality management examines whether using a single item to measure the criterion variable yields sufficient degrees of convergent validity compared to using a multi-item measure.

Findings

The results of an empirical comparison in the context of hospitality management show that, when the sample size is small, a single item yields higher degrees of convergent validity than a reflective construct does. However, larger sample sizes favor the use of reflectively measured multi-item constructs, but the differences are marginal, thus supporting the use of a global single item in PLS-SEM-based redundancy analyses.

Originality/value

This study is the first to research the efficacy of single-item versus multi-item measures in PLS-SEM-based redundancy analyses. The results illustrate that a convergent validity assessment of formatively measured constructs can be implemented without triggering a pronounced increase in survey length.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Stephanie Gilbert and E. Kevin Kelloway

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether single-item measures of job stressor facets were as valid as multiple-item measures in predicting psychological strain…

1205

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether single-item measures of job stressor facets were as valid as multiple-item measures in predicting psychological strain. Single-item measures are more time and cost efficient than multiple-item measures and may also have psychometric benefits.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 3,166 hospital employees were used to evaluate the validity of 11 single-item job stressor facet measures by applying five criteria for content and criterion validity.

Findings

Based on this data, six single-item measures of job stressors met all criteria, supporting their use as single-item facet measures.

Research limitations/implications

The use of a sample of employees from one female-dominated industry may limit the generalizability of the results to other industries. Future research should replicate the results of the current study in other industries and use longitudinal designs to examine the predictive validity of the single-item measures. Future studies may also develop single-item measures of each facet a priori and examine their validity.

Practical implications

Results support the use of single-item measures for the assessment of significance, recognition, workload, work-family conflict, skill use, and coworker relations, which can be included in research where a shorter survey is necessary. These six measures may facilitate more frequent assessment of job stressors, the assessment of job stressors as control variables, and the assessment of multiple job stressors simultaneously, while still minimizing survey space and cost.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the validity of single-item measures of job stressors, which is a construct that is frequently assessed in organizations.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

13386

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Titus Oshagbemi

Managers interested in finding out the overall job satisfaction levels of their workers often face the problem of the appropriate measure of job satisfaction to adopt…

9595

Abstract

Managers interested in finding out the overall job satisfaction levels of their workers often face the problem of the appropriate measure of job satisfaction to adopt: single versus multiple‐item? This study sets out to compare the results of a single versus a multiple‐item measure employed to investigate the job satisfaction of university teachers. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the superiority or otherwise of the measures in ascertaining the overall job satisfaction of workers. The outcome of the study shows that the singleitem measure overestimated the percentage of people satisfied with their jobs and grossly underestimated both the percentage of dissatisfied workers and those who show indifference in comparison with the figures of the multiple‐item measure. Our conclusion, therefore, is that the results from the singleitem measure tend to paint a rosier picture of job satisfaction than the impression conveyed from the multiple‐item measure would justify.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2022

Galen Trail, Don Lee, Stavros Triantafyllidis, Jessica Minkove, Ari Kim, Kristi Sweeney, Wanyong Choi and Priscila Alfaro-Barrantes

This paper aims to determine if single-item (SI) needs' and values' measures have similar reliability and validity values to multi-item (MI) measures of the same…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine if single-item (SI) needs' and values' measures have similar reliability and validity values to multi-item (MI) measures of the same constructs and thus could be substituted by sport marketers to predict internal motivating aspects of sport consumer attitudes and behavior. In addition, the authors wish to determine whether a small subset of needs and values listed in current measures are sufficient to predict sport consumer attitudes and behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

In this two-study design, the first study was a national sample (N = 439) comparing reliability and validity of single-item scales to multi-item scales. In the second study the authors collected data from fans and spectators of four different teams (N1 = 583; N2 = 1164; N3 = 213; N4 = 404) to determine the impact of needs and values on sport consumer attitudes and behavior.

Findings

The authors determined that in 89% of the scales, single-item measures of needs and values were just as reliable and valid as their associated multi-item measures. The authors also found that a small subset of the needs and values explain a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

The authors determined that in 89% of the scales, single-item measures of needs and values were just as reliable and valid as their associated multi-item measures. The authors also found that a small subset of the needs and values explain a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors.

Originality/value

The authors show that as motives for sport consumption, single-item measures of personal needs and values are equivalent to multi-item measures and not all needs and values used in previous sport research are necessary because they do not predict a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors. The authors identified a small number of single-item measures that practitioners can easily use in short surveys that will predict a statistically meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

John R. Rossiter

This paper aims to extend Rossiter’s C-OAR-SE method of measure design (IJRM, 2002, p. 19, p. 4, pp. 305-335; EJM, 2011, p. 45, p. 11, p. 12, pp. 1561-1588) by proposing…

1837

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extend Rossiter’s C-OAR-SE method of measure design (IJRM, 2002, p. 19, p. 4, pp. 305-335; EJM, 2011, p. 45, p. 11, p. 12, pp. 1561-1588) by proposing five distinct construct models for designing optimally content-valid multiple-item and single-item measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins by dismissing convergent validation, the core procedure in Nunnally’s (1978) and Churchill’s (1979) psychometric method of measure design which allows alternative measures of the same construct. The method of dismissal is the mathematical demonstration that an alternative measure, no matter how highly its scores converge with those from the original measure, will inevitably produce different findings. The only solution to this knowledge-threatening problem is to agree on an optimal measure of each of our major constructs and to use only that measure in all future research, as is standard practice in the physical sciences. The paper concludes by proposing an extension of Rossiter’s C-OAR-SE method to design optimal standard measures of judgment constructs, the most prevalent type of construct in marketing.

Findings

The findings are, first, the mathematical dismissal of the accepted practice of convergent validation of alternative measures of the same construct, which paves the way for, second, the proposal of five new C-OAR-SE-based construct models for designing optimal standard measures of judgment constructs, three of which require a multiple-item measure and two of which a single-item measure.

Practical implications

The common practice of accepting alternative measures of the same construct causes major problems for the social sciences: when different measures are used, it becomes impossible, except by remote chance, to replicate findings; meta-analyses become meaningless because the findings are averaged over different measures; and empirical generalizations cannot be trusted when measures are changed. These problems mean that we cannot continue to accept alternative measures of the constructs and that, for each construct, an optimal standard measure must be found.

Originality/value

The ideas in this paper, which have untold value for the future of marketing as a legitimate science, are unique to Rossiter’s C-OAR-SE method of measure design.

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Göran Svensson

The topic of scholarly journals is important to the marketing discipline and the worldwide research communities, due to the way the journals are categorized and judged in…

1378

Abstract

Purpose

The topic of scholarly journals is important to the marketing discipline and the worldwide research communities, due to the way the journals are categorized and judged in available and compiled journal rankings. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the underlying measures of journal rankings in scholarly journals in marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

It is limited to the scholarly journals and journal rankings of the marketing discipline.

Findings

Journal rankings of scholarly journals in marketing are mainly based upon singleitem measures based upon either citations or perceptions, without any estimates of validity, reliability or generality.

Research limitations/implications

There is a need to move away from the predominantly “singleitem measure syndrome” that characterizes most of the available and compiled journal rankings in marketing.

Practical implications

Broader approaches should be implemented and applied in journal rankings based upon “multi‐item measures”.

Originality/value

Re‐assessment of the activity of ranking journals is long overdue if the ranking lists themselves do not consider a minimum of scientific rigor and soundness as required in other areas of scholarly endeavours. The marketing discipline may be at risk of entering a vicious and irreversible circle of decline and decomposition.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Alan M. Saks

In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement…

4611

Abstract

Purpose

In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement have been published and most of them have used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) to measure work engagement. The purpose of this paper is to revisit Saks (2006) to try and address some issues that have arisen during the last ten years and to assess the generalizability of his findings and model using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item measures of job and organization engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Additional analyses was conducted using the data from Saks (2006) including measures of each job characteristic, the use of the UWES measure of work engagement, and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement. In addition, a review of engagement research was conducted as well as research that used Saks’ (2006) measures of job engagement and organization engagement.

Findings

The results indicate that skill variety is the main job characteristic that predicts job engagement. The results of the analysis using the UWES measure of work engagement found that job characteristics and perceived organizational support are significant predictors of work engagement, and work engagement predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and intentions to quit and mediates the relationship between the antecedents and the consequences. Similar results were found using the single-item measures of job engagement and organization engagement. A review of the engagement literature indicates general support for the Saks (2006) model of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement and for his measures of job and organization engagement. A revised and updated model is provided with additional antecedents and consequences.

Practical implications

The results indicate that organizations can drive employee engagement by focusing on skill variety as well as providing social support, rewards and recognition, procedural and distributive fairness, and opportunities for learning and development. In addition, organizations can assess employee engagement more frequently and easily by using single-item measures of job and organization engagement.

Originality/value

This paper provides an update and revision of the Saks (2006) model of employee engagement and suggests that the main findings are similar when using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1983

David Ronen

Inventory service levels are a concern of every inventory system. Poor service levels may result in loss of customers and sales, whereas excessive service levels result in…

Abstract

Inventory service levels are a concern of every inventory system. Poor service levels may result in loss of customers and sales, whereas excessive service levels result in loss of money due to large inventories. Although inventory service levels have been discussed widely in the professional literature, the emphasis has been on service levels during replenishment lead times. Overall service levels, which are much more relevant to customers, have received little attention, and the results presented are often mistaken. This article reviews measures of inventory service levels both for single and multiple items, relates single item measures during lead times to their overall counterparts, and shows that overall measures are not only more relevant to customers, but also require lower safety stock from the provider of the goods.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 61000