There is now a wide body of literature pertaining to the Japanesemanufacturing philosophies and techniques embodied in the termsjust‐in‐time (JIT) and total quality…
There is now a wide body of literature pertaining to the Japanese manufacturing philosophies and techniques embodied in the terms just‐in‐time (JIT) and total quality control (TQC). The current emphasis is on the operational issues and benefits such as the reduction of set‐up times, lot sizes, work‐in‐progress inventories, floor space requirements and the like. This article acknowledges these operational benefits but goes on to highlight what it considers to be the greater strategic significance of the Japanese JIT/TQC system, namely that JIT/TQC provides the mechanism for organisational learning, development of production know‐how and the establishment of process control that leads logically to full‐scale automation of the production system. It also proposes a continuum of industrial progress, with basic production system rationalisation and housekeeping at one end and fullscale automation of the production system at the other end. The article then explains how the adoption and implementation of JIT/TQC practices can help to move a country along this continuum of industrial progress, leading eventually to a predominance of automated production, and hence increased industrial productivity and competitive strengths for that country.
The literature on the close to just‐in‐time (JIT) problems of conditions already exists. However, most of it is descriptive and does not quantify cost savings derivable as one moves from the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) scenario to one that is governed or nearly governed by zero inventory philosophy. This article seeks to establish cost bounds on inventory held under close to JIT conditions for the single item inventory.
Seeks to contribute to the empirical database on the progression ofthinking with regards to the strategic role of manufacturing byreporting some results of a study on the…
Seeks to contribute to the empirical database on the progression of thinking with regards to the strategic role of manufacturing by reporting some results of a study on the manufacturing‐strategy thinking and practices amongst practising managers of operations based in a newly industrialized economy (NIE). In particular, highlights the finding that while almost all operations managers in the sample perceive that manufacturing can and should contribute to overall corporate strategy, their view of the role of manufacturing is that it should primarily be reactive vis‐à‐vis other functional areas; such a view is far from strategic. Operations managers in the survey agree that there are many ways to compete besides cost, but their main criterion for evaluating the manufacturing function is still cost and productivity. They seem to fail to recognize the existence of tradeoffs in the production system. They acknowledge the necessity to handle strategic issues, but still perceive infrastructural decisions as mere operational decisions. While the role of managers in NIEs is likely to be more cost focused rather than strategic in orientation, they need to be better and further exposed to the current concepts of manufacturing strategy thinking and development. In particular, a more proactive form of the strategic role of manufacturing could be pursued.
Hayes and Wheelwright, in postulating a more proactive strategic role of manufacturing, provided a four‐stage framework for the evaluation of manufacturing effectiveness…
Hayes and Wheelwright, in postulating a more proactive strategic role of manufacturing, provided a four‐stage framework for the evaluation of manufacturing effectiveness. Reports on some results of an empirical study on the assessment of manufacturing effectiveness based on the Hayes‐Wheelwright (H‐W) framework. Highlights the operationalization of the H‐W framework as a strategic manufacturing audit tool and applies this tool to the manufacturing operations within a specific industry, namely the electronics industry. Aggregates and reports the results of the strategic manufacturing audits. In this way, provides an industry‐wide summary average of the strategic thinking and practices of manufacturing operations. This can then be used as the industry benchmark against which specific operations may be compared. Adds to the empirical database of manufacturing strategy and strategic manufacturing effectiveness as reported in the open literature. Provides a pragmatic strategic manufacturing audit tool that is based on the previously reported works of Hayes and Wheelwright.
Competition, technological advancement and the sophistication of consumers’ needs have led to the evolution of competitive paradigms, in which, time‐based competition…
Competition, technological advancement and the sophistication of consumers’ needs have led to the evolution of competitive paradigms, in which, time‐based competition apparently has emerged as the competitive paradigm of the 1990s. While much has been written about the paradigm since it was first highlighted in the late 1980s, no comprehensive literature review is currently available. Seeks to provide such a review of the literature. Categorizes the existing literature into four broad classes: descriptive literature, managerial implications, case studies and applications, and mathematical modelling. Presents the key ideas and the associated literature to the reader as a guide to the total topic of time‐based competition. Reviews also the theoretic time‐based modelling literature, and so highlights the current status and limitations of this literature. Provides the motivation for further research to be carried out within the realm of time‐based modelling.
Third party logistics services have a significant role to play in the current trend of outsourcing of the logistics function. From the third party logistics service…
Third party logistics services have a significant role to play in the current trend of outsourcing of the logistics function. From the third party logistics service provider’s perspective, the provider must seek to manage itself strategically in order to win an increasing share of the outsourcing pie. In this paper, we extend the Hayes‐Wheelwright framework for strategic manufacturing management to the strategic management of third party logistics service providers. A Singapore‐based case example is provided within this context to illustrate the relevance of the Hayes‐Wheelwright framework. The case also gives a glimpse into the strategic thinking and practices of a leading Singapore‐based service provider in terms of its vision and strategy in building the logistics superhighway within the Asia Pacific Region.
The just‐in‐time (JIT) production system represents a new technology that has been widely promoted by the Singapore government and which has been adopted by several organizations operating in this newly industrialized economy (NIE). Presents the first comprehensive study of JIT practices in Singapore. Describes the major survey findings on the profile of JIT companies, their pre‐implementation and implementation experiences, and the JIT practices targeted for future implementation. In this way, the study is similar to other such studies conducted in the USA, the UK, Europe, Australia, Hong Kong, Korea and Taiwan, and hence adds to the empirical database of actual JIT practices as published in the literature. Also seeks to provide empirical insights to three specific research issues pertaining to the strategic significance of JIT, the speedy and effective implementation of JIT, and the need for local suppliers to practise JIT. Such empirical insights derived from the JIT practices of companies operating within a successful NIE like Singapore could be helpful towards encouraging the rapid diffusion of the JIT technology in other developing economies.
The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine what senior supply chain executives measure and how they perceive performance measurement from a balanced scorecard…
The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine what senior supply chain executives measure and how they perceive performance measurement from a balanced scorecard (BSC) perspective.
A survey designed from the four perspectives of the BSC framework is conducted on senior executives involved in the supply chain functions of client firms, and those executives from the logistics service provider industry.
Despite the need to provide a balanced approach to performance measurement, firms remain focused on traditional financial measures (gross revenue, profit before tax, and cost reduction). From a supply chain perspective, the non‐tangible measures such as customer satisfaction are most measured. Other key logistics performance indicators include on‐time delivery, and customer satisfaction.
The findings are based on a sample size of 113. Thus, some respondent clusters are smaller than others. Hence, the results may not be representative of the individual clusters.
Each supply chain entity must adopt a more balanced perspective in its performance measurement and management. Companies need to recognize the importance of the drivers of strategic future performance. Managing a given supply chain's overall performance necessitates the coordination of measures across the different entities on the supply chain, often requiring all entities to adopt a common balanced perspective in their performance management to facilitate the overall performance and competitiveness of the entire supply chain.
This paper is the first attempt to apply the BSC framework on the logistics industry.
This paper discusses evidence from field studies undertaken to investigate the responsiveness of the order fulfilment process in a number of companies. The evidence is analysed in the context of the literature on responsiveness and related areas such as time‐based competition. Similarities and differences are analysed across a number of industrial sectors with respect to order fulfilment processes and the interpretation and significance of responsiveness. Generic factors that influence different types of companies are identified. Four components of responsiveness – stimuli, awareness, capabilities and goals – emerge from an analysis of the literature. The field and case study evidence allows the development of more precise definitions and descriptions of each of these components. The study also allows a generic responsiveness framework to be developed that incorporates both strategic and operational viewpoints. The need for more field studies on responsiveness is noted. More work is advocated on the assessment and measurement of responsiveness and on developing appropriate responsiveness interventions, particularly with respect to the order fulfilment process.