The electronic social media such as Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, etc. have become a major form of communication, and the expression of attitudes and opinions, for the…
The electronic social media such as Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, etc. have become a major form of communication, and the expression of attitudes and opinions, for the general public. Recently, they have also become a source of data for market researchers. This paper aims to provide a critical look at the advantages and limitations of such an approach to understanding brand perceptions and attitudes in the market place. Although the social media provide a wealth of data for automated content analyses, this review questions the validity and reliability of this research approach, and concludes that social media monitoring (SMM) is a poor substitute for in‐depth qualitative research which has many advantages and benefits.
The paper presents a detailed, systematic comparison of various research approaches. These include well‐established methods and recent inventions which are in use to explore and understand consumer behaviour and attitudes. Particular attention is given to the analysis of spontaneous consumer attitudes as expressed through the social media and also in qualitative research interviews.
This analysis concludes that there are three critical features which differentiate qualitative research (as practised in IDIs and group discussions) from SMM. These are: the direct, interactive dialogue or conversation between consumers and researchers; the facility to “listen” and attend to the (sometimes unspoken) underlying narrative which connects consumers' needs and aspirations, personal goals and driving forces to behaviour and brand choice; and the dynamic, interactive characteristics of the interview that achieve a meeting of minds to produce a shared understanding. Philosophically, it is this “conversation” that gives qualitative research its validity and authenticity which makes it superior to SMM.
This review questions the validity and reliability of the SMM, and concludes that it is a poor substitute for in‐depth qualitative research which has many advantages and benefits.
What is it about Chupa Chups which makes it so fascinating to kids and teenagers around the world? This paper will look at how Chupa Chups has developed itself as a…
What is it about Chupa Chups which makes it so fascinating to kids and teenagers around the world? This paper will look at how Chupa Chups has developed itself as a ‘discovery brand’, always offering something new about itself to be discovered. Like people, brands live and mature in real time, and their communication with their public must also feel real and not appear to be trying too hard to attract attention to themselves. One way of achieving this is by allowing the brand to have contradictions. Chupa Chups is a brand which will not commit to a clear and uniform brand strategy — and this is what makes it so interesting to consumers (and researchers). But even a contradictory brand needs a strategy — and one of the challenges of understanding the brand is identifying where the tensions within it lie — in order that they can be developed and built upon in the future. The methods of researching the contradictory components of Chupa Chups will be discussed.
This paper aims to examine whether there is an association between the level of performance‐based incentives offered to CEOs and the composition of firms' boards of…
This paper aims to examine whether there is an association between the level of performance‐based incentives offered to CEOs and the composition of firms' boards of directors and the compensation committee.
Univariate tests are used to test the relation between the level of performance‐based incentives and corporate governance structures. A logistic regression analysis is used to predict the probability of CEOs receiving low performance‐based incentives when various characteristics of firms' boards of directors and compensation committees exist.
The authors find the presence of CEO duality reduces the likelihood of lower levels of performance‐based incentives offered to CEOs. Additionally, the authors find CEOs are more likely to receive lower levels of performance‐based incentives when the majority of the compensation committee members serve on less than three other boards, and when the size of the board is less than or equal to nine members.
This study is limited by the fact that the sample may not be representative of the general population of companies in the US.
Shareholders who desire to keep CEO compensation levels low may consider supporting the separation of the positions of CEO and Chairperson of the Board, as well as supporting limiting the number of other boards directors may serve, and reducing or keeping the size of the board to a maximum of nine members.
The authors have documented an association between board structure and CEO compensation. It appears that company boards are able to monitor and control the compensation level offered to CEOs.
High-stakes accountability and continuous multi-faceted pressures of the principalship require leaders to develop a broad range of personal qualities including resilience…
High-stakes accountability and continuous multi-faceted pressures of the principalship require leaders to develop a broad range of personal qualities including resilience and personal vitality. Scant research exists on what happens to school principals when careers abruptly and involuntarily end, and the purpose of this paper is sought to hear principals’ accounts of their experiences and to identify whether these personal qualities assist recovery and career re-identification.
A collaborative English and Australian study of former principals aimed to evaluate effects of involuntary job loss from their own perspectives. In total, 12 case studies involved one-on-one interviews during a two-year period revealing impact of job loss, coping strategies, resilience and personal vitality.
Successful management indicators were found: personal qualities, including the ability to retain a perspective and big picture view of career journey; an enduring love of teaching; health and fitness; study; getting another suitable post; and psychological and medical support. Time taken to regain pre-existing levels of personal vitality varied significantly based on resilience and contextual circumstances, whilst psychological and social support from family and professional colleagues was invaluable for recovery.
This international study presents an original insight into effects of principals’ sudden job loss – a perspective which has imposing pastoral relevance for employing authorities, professional associations and collegial networks. Aspiring and current principals may feel, “There but for the grace of God, go I”, and it is they who may need ultimately to be prepared for what is an increasingly common occurrence in schools across the world.
As the assets of public employee retirement systems grow (to $1 trillion by 1994), so does the interest in targeting these assets to specific goals, primarily housing and…
As the assets of public employee retirement systems grow (to $1 trillion by 1994), so does the interest in targeting these assets to specific goals, primarily housing and job creation, in a system's geographic area. If properly structured, these investments, often called economically targeted investments, or ETIs, can be a legitimate part of a public retirement system's portfolio. This article clarifies several essential characteristics of ETIs. Previous studies, national surveys and actual ETI portfolios are examined. The article argues that further analysis, especially involving evaluation techniques, is essential as this investment strategy continues to gain steam, especially with the encouragement of the Clinton Administration.