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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Simon Hewson

A district‐wide evaluation of a residential service for mentally handicapped adults is described. The measures relate to the conditions for a reasonable quality of life…

Abstract

A district‐wide evaluation of a residential service for mentally handicapped adults is described. The measures relate to the conditions for a reasonable quality of life for the residents. The results show that, in an ordinary service, client outcomes can compare reasonably with findings published by exemplary projects, although there were marked variations. A direct observation methodology is described which can be applied in services without special resources. Such an approach may help meet the increasing requirements, in Community Care legislation, to monitor the quality of services provided to people with long‐term needs. The role of evaluation in service development is discussed, as is the relation of evaluation to quality. Finally, the key influence of managers on the quality of staff performance is highlighted.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

John Pring

This article describes one of the issues that arose from my research into the Longcare abuse scandal: how local authorities place learning‐disabled adults in out‐of‐area…

Abstract

This article describes one of the issues that arose from my research into the Longcare abuse scandal: how local authorities place learning‐disabled adults in out‐of‐area settings far from their original homes, and then fail to visit them regularly to check on their welfare. It describes the failings of three local and health authorities in the Longcare case, and then reveals that the problem was not confined to those authorities that placed adults at the Longcare homes. It also suggests that placing vulnerable adults in out‐of‐area homes puts them at a greater risk of abuse. The article concludes that, ten years on from the exposure of the Longcare regime, many local authorities are still placing vulnerable adults in out‐of‐area homes and failing to visit them. It calls for a national audit of out‐of‐area placements and for measures to be introduced to allow learning‐disabled adults to live in placements closer to their families and friends… and care managers.

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Jim Mansell

Abstract

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2008

Laura Albareda

The aim of this paper is to analyze the changing role of business in a globalized society, focusing on transnational corporations as private authorities which have gained

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7377

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyze the changing role of business in a globalized society, focusing on transnational corporations as private authorities which have gained power in global governance. The paper will aim to address the following issues: the development of CSR as a voluntary framework based on self‐regulation instruments through which corporations can manage their social and environmental impacts; corporations' exercise of power and authority in developing CSR standards globally through inter‐firm cooperation; and CSR as a mechanism to transform business culture through the development of co‐regulatory instruments between corporations and their stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the emergence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a new governance framework, essentially created by the pressure of global civil society on corporations. The research focuses on the analysis of new forms of business political activities: self‐regulation and co‐regulation.

Findings

The findings describe how transnational corporations have become private authorities, competing or collaborating with global civil society or public authorities to develop a new framework of social and environmental regulations to manage their responsibilities and exercise their global power.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the need for regulatory tools to transform global governance. CSR requires the development of public accountability mechanisms for private authorities, an issue that can be resolved by developing global governance networks between public and private actors.

Originality/value

This paper explains why CSR has taken shape through the creation of self‐regulation management standards and co‐regulating norms and instruments where transnational corporations are a major driving force.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2014

To examine the impacts experiential learning can have on student learning in and out of the classroom. Models of experiential learning are presented including the…

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the impacts experiential learning can have on student learning in and out of the classroom. Models of experiential learning are presented including the experiential learning theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The historical roots of experiential learning are reviewed before a new experiential learning theory is presented, VAKT-enhanced, to demonstrate the many unique paths that learners take toward content learning, retention, and synthesis.

Findings

Apprenticeship experience is universally recognized as an effective method of learning; we learn from doing. Yet, the field of literacy has maintained for decades that reading skills must be taught, often carried out in a drill fashion, also known as the proverbial skill-and-drill technique

Practical implications

A multisensory approach that involves experiencing literature through hands-on and e-learning environments can promote reading acquisition efficiently, bridging the gap between diverse student bodies. Students must be rejuvenated to become interested or maintain interest in literacy, and using technology and experiential learning should be of central focus.

Details

Theoretical Models of Learning and Literacy Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-821-1

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Alex E. Crosby and Shane P. D. Jack

This chapter depicts the burden of suicidal behavior among African American males. It describes the public health approach to preventing suicidal behavior among African…

Abstract

This chapter depicts the burden of suicidal behavior among African American males. It describes the public health approach to preventing suicidal behavior among African American males. This approach includes assessing and describing the problem; identifying causes or risk and protective factors; developing and evaluating programs and policies; and implementing and disseminating findings and activities. The chapter provides a review of the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior; a summary of what is known about the risk and protective factors of the problem; and a descriptive analysis of the circumstances associated with suicides among young African American males is presented. Lastly, the authors give a summary of evidenced-based prevention programs which could be applied in preventing male suicidal behavior.

Details

Inequality, Crime, and Health Among African American Males
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-051-0

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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Christine Gerber and Martin Krzywdzinski

The term “crowdwork” describes a new form of digital work that is organized and regulated by internet-based platforms. This chapter examines how crowdwork platforms ensure…

Abstract

The term “crowdwork” describes a new form of digital work that is organized and regulated by internet-based platforms. This chapter examines how crowdwork platforms ensure their virtual workforce’s commitment and control its performance despite its high mobility, anonymity, and dispersion. The findings are based on a case study analysis of 15 microtask and macrotask platforms, encompassing 32 interviews with representatives of crowdwork platforms, and crowdworkers, as well as an analysis of the platforms’ homepages and community spaces. The chapter shows that performance control on crowd platforms relies on a combination of direct control, reputation systems, and community building, which have until now been studied in isolation or entirely ignored. Moreover, the findings suggest that while all three elements can be found on both microtask and macrotask platforms, their functionality and purpose differ. Overall, the findings highlight that platforms are no neutral intermediaries but organizations that adopt an active role in structuring the digital labor process and in shaping working conditions. Their managerial structures are coded and objectified into seemingly neutral technological infrastructures, whereby the underlying power relations between capital and labor become obscured.

Details

Work and Labor in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-585-7

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

David Martindill and Elaine Wilson

The purpose of this paper is to study the use and value of practical work in the secondary school science classroom. Informed by the findings of a large survey of students…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the use and value of practical work in the secondary school science classroom. Informed by the findings of a large survey of students from a wide variety of schools, a case study of pupils in the middle secondary range sought to investigate the precise role of practical work in the learning of a specific topic over a series of lessons.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative and quantitative assessment of academic progress of two classes of pupils revealed that students who undertook practical tasks made greater gains in knowledge and understanding than those who undertook non-practical alternatives. In order to explore students’ views about the practical tasks and whether they found them to be an affective and effective aid for their learning, data were collected using questionnaires, lesson observations and interviews of focus groups.

Findings

The data suggest three reasons why practical work supported pupils’ learning. First, practical work supported their visualisation of abstract concepts and provided a stimulus for the recall of key facts later. Second, it provided a distinctive opportunity for pupils to work collaboratively, with associated gains. Finally, hands-on tasks promoted a classroom atmosphere rich in variety, semi-autonomous learning and self-discovery, which pupils found intrinsically motivational.

Originality/value

This study, which responds to the criticism practical work has received in recent years, sheds some light on the mechanisms through which the strategy supports learning in certain contexts. Moreover it argues that practical work needs to be effectively planned to maximise the learning gains made by pupils.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Rehan ul‐Haq and Barry Howcroft

The purpose of the paper is to explain how and why strategic alliances, in the form of clubs and consortiums, played an important role in the internationalisation of banks.

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2966

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to explain how and why strategic alliances, in the form of clubs and consortiums, played an important role in the internationalisation of banks.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal analysis, commencing in 1964 with the emergence of the Eurocurrency market and culminating with the creation of the European single market in the early 1990s, is used to provide an insight into the creation of clubs and consortium banks. The authors adopt the Lawson realist methodology and identify broad structural changes in the markets in which banks operate, i.e. “mechanisms” and relate these to major trends, i.e. “events” such as the creation of strategic alliances.

Findings

It is generally recognised that banks became international in response to the globalisation strategies of their multinational customers. However, the paper reveals that banks were also internationalising in response to structural changes in the financial services markets.

Research limitations/implications

A criticism of the Lawson methodology is that it is not always possible to discern causal linkages between mechanisms and events. This explains why research of this kind is typically retrospective because it is only with the benefit of hindsight that the causal linkages can be fully understood.

Originality/value

The study provides new insights into the emergence of international banking and the role of clubs and consortiums in this process.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

Laura Albareda

This paper presents an analytical framework to understand the complex CSR accountability standard architecture, studying the CSR standardization cycle through the

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2724

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an analytical framework to understand the complex CSR accountability standard architecture, studying the CSR standardization cycle through the organizational studies perspective. It has two main aims: to discuss the theoretical approach to CSR governance, proposing a matrix to classify international CSR accountability standards; and to study the CSR multi-industry standardization cycle (setting and design, diffusion and implementation), creating an analytical framework to understand the innovative dynamics adopted through CSR standard-setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on empirical research on global CSR multi-industry standards and the emergence of a regulatory dynamic based on competition-collaboration. The paper's arguments stem from a case study of the Global Reporting Initiative and its inter-linkage and convergence with the UN Global Compact and ISO 26000. The author analyzes this case based on the global governance and institutional dynamics of regulation research.

Findings

Based on the study of CSR standards, the paper presents an analytical framework with various elements to analyze CSR accountability standards: scope, type of actors, performance type and mechanisms and type of legitimacy and monitoring strategies. Second, the paper advances the study of emerging inter-linkages between GRI, UNGC and ISO 26000 and analyzes the emergence of a meta-standardization process generated by the competition-collaboration dynamic.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to focus on the role of agency and different stakeholders on the meta-standardization process. Other research has to focus on the institutional logic and the multi-level analysis of the convergence between CSR standards and the self-regulation advanced process. In this respect, this research serves to demonstrate the leading innovative role adopted by private actors (mostly companies) in developing private standard setting for global governance.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is its analysis of the main convergence dynamic adopted by the most popular, global-scope CSR multi-industry standards, GRI, UNGC and ISO 26000. The findings show how this standardization cycle helps a new collaborative governance dynamic to emerge based on the adoption of private standard-setting. The paper is also useful for practitioners, helping them understand the growing convergence among CSR multi-industry standards, and how the convergence of sustainability reporting processes is advancing towards the integration and drafting of homogeneous guidelines with the prevalence of the GRI model.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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