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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Pramod Raj Regmi, Edwin van Teijlingen and Sanjeev Raj Neupane

It is widely believed that transgender individuals in Nepal inject silicone for face and body manipulation, a phenomenon thought to be common among transgender individuals…

Abstract

Purpose

It is widely believed that transgender individuals in Nepal inject silicone for face and body manipulation, a phenomenon thought to be common among transgender individuals globally. Therefore, this qualitative study conducted in Nepal explored: (1) awareness of silicone use and sources of information; (2) reasons for using silicone; (3) notion of cost and quality of these procedures; (4) reported negative aspects, including side effects and (5) health seeking behaviors of Nepali transgender women.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors carried out eight focus group discussions (FGDs) with transgender women at four different districts of Nepal, five in the capital Kathmandu and three in different rural areas. We also interviewed three transgender women who preferred not to participate in the FGD but were happy to be interviewed separately. Similarly, six interviews with stakeholders working for sexual and gender minority populations were also conducted.

Findings

Most FGD participants were young (mean age 23.06 ± 3.9 years) and the majority (55%; n = 34) completed grade six to high school level. Peer networks of transgender people and the Internet were the more popular sources of information about silicone. The decision to use silicone was largely influenced by the desire to look beautiful and more feminine. Often they appear not to follow the recommended procedures for silicone use. Their health seeking behavior regarding side effects or complications of these procedures was very poor.

Originality/value

Findings reflect that targeted interventions aimed at transgender individuals should educate them on the use of silicone, as well as explore safe and affordable approaches to meet gender-related appearance needs of Nepali transgender people.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Jae Sevelius and Valerie Jenness

The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns – victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision – related to the health…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns – victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision – related to the health and welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a growing body of research on health risks for transgender women who are detained in facilities in California and elsewhere, the authors provide recommendations for policy and practice that constitutes gender-affirming healthcare for transgender women behind bars.

Findings

Policymakers, correctional leaders, and prison-based clinicians have a number of opportunities to address the welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities.

Originality/value

This policy brief offers concrete steps government officials can take to better meet their professional and constitutional obligations, provide higher quality care for transgender women involved in the criminal justice system, and effectuate positive changes in transgender women’s health and welfare both inside and outside of carceral environments.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

Roberta A. Scull and Barbara S. Kavanaugh

Bobbie Scull's bibliography of federal government bibliographies was begun in 1971 as an annual informational publication primarily intended for the faculty at Louisiana…

Abstract

Bobbie Scull's bibliography of federal government bibliographies was begun in 1971 as an annual informational publication primarily intended for the faculty at Louisiana State University. Later she distributed it to libraries all over the state of Louisiana. In 1973 RSR began to publish these lists on an annual basis. This is the fourth such appearance. In the meantime these bibliographies were cumulated and published in two volumes: Bibliography of U.S. Government Bibliographies 1968–73 and 1974–76. (Pierian Press, 1975, 1979). RSR is proud to continue the annual supplements which are now computer produced at LSU. Although this supplement appears in Volume 8:1 (1980) in the future they will appear in the final issue of the year.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

M. Vaezi, D. Safaeian and C.K. Chua

Conventional investment casting of turbine blades is a time consuming and expensive process due to the complications in wax injection steps and the complex shape of…

Abstract

Purpose

Conventional investment casting of turbine blades is a time consuming and expensive process due to the complications in wax injection steps and the complex shape of airfoil surfaces. By using rapid investment casting, a substantial improvement in the gas turbine blade manufacturing process can be expected. However, this process needs to be able to compete with conventional investment casting from a dimensional accuracy view of point. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the manufacture of gas turbine blades via two indirect rapid tooling (RT) technologies, namely epoxy (EP) resin tooling and silicon rubber molding.

Design/methodology/approach

The second stage blade of a Ruston TA 1750 gas turbine (rated at 1.3 MW) was digitized by a coordinate measuring machine. The aluminum‐filled EP resin and silicon rubber molds were fabricated using StereoLithography master models. Several wax patterns were made by injection in the EP resin and silicone rubber molds. These wax patterns were utilized for ceramic shell fabrication and blade casting.

Findings

Dimensional inspection of cast blades showed that silicone rubber molding was not a suitable approach for production of blade wax patterns. The maximum deviation for the final cast blade made using the silicone rubber mold was +0.402 mm. The maximum deviation for the final cast blade made using the EP resin mold was lower at −0.282 mm. This showed that EP resin tooling could enable new cost‐effective solutions for small batch production of gas turbine blades.

Practical implications

The research results presented will give efficient industrial approach and scientific insight of the gas turbine blade manufacturing by use of rapid technologies.

Originality/value

There are some general research works related to utilization of rapid technologies for manufacturing of gas turbine blade. However, this paper presents a unique procedure of integrated reverse engineering and RT technologies for rapid investment casting of gas turbine blade through presenting comprehensive comparison between two techniques from dimensional accuracy view of point.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

S. Rahmati, J. Akbari and E. Barati

Dimensional accuracy analysis of wax model created by room temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicone rubber molding to be used in investment casting is presented. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Dimensional accuracy analysis of wax model created by room temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicone rubber molding to be used in investment casting is presented. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effective parameters of dimensional accuracy in RTV tooling technique.

Design/methodology/approach

After producing a pattern by stereolithography (SLA) and then creating the RTV silicone rubber mold by the SLA pattern, dimensional accuracy of wax models produced by RTV tool are analyzed. Design of experiments (DOE) using the Taguchi approach is used for analysis and determination of optimum condition.

Findings

Experiments show that the dimensional accuracy in RTV technique is as accurate as in traditional molding. Hence, RTV tooling technique can be used in investment casting. Using Taguchi approach based on DOE, it was realized that the optimum condition to achieve acceptable accuracy is 35°C for mold temperature, 85°C for wax temperature, and −0.5 barG for vacuum pressure.

Practical implications

RTV silicone rubber mold is a useful alternative of metallic mold to produce wax patterns for investment casting. It has benefits such as reduction in production lead‐time and cost, compared with traditional metallic mold.

Originality/value

A case study for research of dimensional accuracy of wax patterns created by RTV silicone rubber mold had not been attempted as such. In addition to reduction in production lead‐time and cost, the dimensional accuracy of wax patterns using RTV tooling technique are as accurate as in traditional technique.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2021

Radhwan Bin Hussin, Safian Bin Sharif, Shayfull Zamree Bin Abd Rahim, Mohd Azlan Bin Suhaimi, Mohd Tanwyn Bin Mohd Khushairi, Abdellah Abdellah EL-Hadj and Norshah Afizi Bin Shuaib

Rapid tooling (RT) integrated with additive manufacturing technologies have been implemented in various sectors of the RT industry in recent years with various kinds of…

Abstract

Purpose

Rapid tooling (RT) integrated with additive manufacturing technologies have been implemented in various sectors of the RT industry in recent years with various kinds of prototype applications, especially in the development of new products. The purpose of this study is to analyze the current application trends of RT techniques in producing hybrid mold inserts.

Design/methodology/approach

The direct and indirect RT techniques discussed in this paper are aimed at developing a hybrid mold insert using metal epoxy composite (MEC) in increasing the speed of tooling development and performance. An extensive review of the suitable development approach of hybrid mold inserts, material preparation and filler effect on physical and mechanical properties has been conducted.

Findings

Latest research studies indicate that it is possible to develop a hybrid material through the combination of different shapes/sizes of filler particles and it is expected to improve the compressive strength, thermal conductivity and consequently increasing the hybrid mold performance (cooling time and a number of molding cycles).

Research limitations/implications

The number of research studies on RT for hybrid mold inserts is still lacking as compared to research studies on conventional manufacturing technology. One of the significant limitations is on the ways to improve physical and mechanical properties due to the limited type, size and shape of materials that are currently available.

Originality/value

This review presents the related information and highlights the current gaps related to this field of study. In addition, it appraises the new formulation of MEC materials for the hybrid mold inserts in injection molding application and RT for non-metal products.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2013

Roxanne Longman Marcellin, Greta R. Bauer and Ayden I. Scheim

Minority stress theory suggests enhanced HIV risk for those experiencing social marginalization, while an intersectionality framework posits that forms of marginalization…

Abstract

Purpose

Minority stress theory suggests enhanced HIV risk for those experiencing social marginalization, while an intersectionality framework posits that forms of marginalization may interact. The purpose of this paper is to understand how race/ethnicity- and gender-based discrimination may impact HIV risk among transgender or transsexual (trans) people.

Design/methodology/approach

The Trans PULSE project – a community-based research study in Ontario, Canada – used respondent-driven sampling to survey 433 trans participants, including 35 Aboriginal persons and 62 non-Aboriginal persons of colour. Descriptive and regression analyses were weighted to adjust for recruitment probabilities.

Findings

Most Aboriginal persons (65 per cent, 95 per cent CI: 37-90) and persons of colour (90 per cent, 95 per cent CI: 74-100) reported at least one experience of racism or ethnicity-based discrimination, and the vast majority had experienced transphobia (90 and 92 per cent, respectively). Among non-Aboriginal trans persons of colour, experiences of racism and transphobia interacted in increasing odds of engagement in high-risk sex. Increases in experience of one type of discrimination had strongest effects on HIV risk when coupled with high levels of the other.

Research limitations/implications

Persons of colour were ethno-racially diverse; it is possible that different experiences of racism, with divergent effects, were collapsed. Odds ratios may overestimate actual risk ratios.

Originality/value

While some sub-groups of trans people of colour have been identified as highly vulnerable to HIV, few studies have explored the impact of discrimination. This paper explores the roles of two types of discrimination in engendering HIV-related risk, and suggests potential limits to resiliency in the face of high levels of discrimination targeting multiple facets of identity.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Regina Knitter, Werner Bauer, Dieter Göhring and Peter Risthaus

Conventional shaping processes for ceramics are mostly based on a powder‐technological molding process using a negative mold and subsequent thermal compaction. Especially…

Abstract

Conventional shaping processes for ceramics are mostly based on a powder‐technological molding process using a negative mold and subsequent thermal compaction. Especially for prototypes and small lot series of microcomponents the outlay for molds are the major costing factor. Consequently the use of rapid prototyping (RP) processes can decisively reduce the costs and time in product development of ceramic microcomponents. In spite of the fact, that a large number of freeform fabrication techniques for different materials were developed in recent years, most generative techniques of ceramics still have different drawbacks for the fabrication of prototypes and often exhibit limited resolution compared to those of polymers. The combination of RP techniques such as micro stereolithography and ceramic injection molding in a RP process chain can fill in the gap between the limited applicability of solid freeform fabrication of ceramics and the restricted material properties of polymers.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

G.J. Booysen, L.J. Barnard, M. Truscott and D.J. de Beer

The paper reflects on the development of a medical product using rapid prototyping technologies and customer interaction through a quality function deployment (QFD…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper reflects on the development of a medical product using rapid prototyping technologies and customer interaction through a quality function deployment (QFD) approach to speed up the process, and to result in customer satisfaction. The purpose of the specific medical product was to develop a device for fixing an Endo‐tracheal (ET) tube in a patient during anaesthesia, as it is common for an ET tube to move and/or become dislodged due to various extraneous reasons. If the tube deviates from the correct position it can cause one or both lungs to collapse, which can be fatal. The paper reviews how the anaesthetist's idea, which was to develop a product that could hold an ET tube in place in a more secure manner than is possible with current technologies, was brought to fruition through customer interaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an action‐research approach, the design evolved through series of design concepts, which through customer interaction contributed to a total optimized design. Virtual and physical prototypes, together with silicone mouldings were used as part of the customer interaction.

Findings

As with any new product, some functional parts were needed to conduct tests, which in turn would help to prove the product, and hence, the design. Traditionally this meant the manufacturing of a hard tool and proving of the design through trial and error. Hard tooling allows for some small changes to be made, but if the changes are radical a new tool will have to be designed and manufactured.

Research limitations/implications

Following a developmental approach through the application of various types/stages of prototyping (such as virtual prototypes), revolutionised this process by simplifying and accelerating the development iteration process – it also developed a new version/paradigm of QFD.

Practical implications

Opposed to traditional forms of QFD where customer inputs are gathered through questionnaires, this case study proved that functional models provide an efficient client‐feedback, through constant involvement in the development process, as well as evaluation of the systematic progress.

Originality/value

The case study shows that experts in other disciplines can become involved in the product development process through the availability of functional prototypes, and builds on previous work to introduce a concept of customer interaction with functional prototypes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1962

After preliminary adjustments, the first engine was put on a 1,000 hr. non‐stop day and night run. During this first prolonged test there was heavy wear of the piston…

Abstract

After preliminary adjustments, the first engine was put on a 1,000 hr. non‐stop day and night run. During this first prolonged test there was heavy wear of the piston rings and cylinder liners, which circumstances became known and was given wide publicity. Apart from being worn, the piston rings were covered with a black sludge and there was considerable accumulation of this around the scavenge ports and in the entablature. This was traced to a defective spraying of fuel from the injectors, the test having been carried out on a high viscosity fuel and the cause was due to the injection pressure falling to about 4,800 lb/sq. in. at the end of injection. This first P type engine was rated at 10,000 h.p., i.e. 1,666 h.p. per cylinder, which was the highest output that had been obtained from a Doxford cylinder up to that time and therefore the quantity of fuel per injection was higher than ever before and this plug of oil taken from the accumulator bottles lowered the pressure by over 2,500 lb/sq. in., i.e. from 7,500 lb/sq. in. at the beginning of injection to about 4,800 lb/sq. in. at the end of injection. To overcome this, each set of three bottles was joined together by a relatively large diameter pipe and thus the volume of fuel available for each injection was increased threefold. With this arrangement the injection pressure fell by only 400 lb/sq. in. from the beginning to the end of injection and this completely eliminated the sludge, so that the difficulty with broken piston rings and worn liners was largely removed.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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