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Article

James M. Honeycutt, Jonathon K. Frost and Colton E. Krawietz

The signal detection theory has evolutionary foundations such that our ancestors who were able to detect signals of aggression survived, while those who could not were…

Abstract

Purpose

The signal detection theory has evolutionary foundations such that our ancestors who were able to detect signals of aggression survived, while those who could not were extinguished. The paper examines the detection of conflict escalation signals in a domestic argument in a married couple as a consequence of history with prior victimization and perpetration of violence. The purpose of this paper is threefold: escalation detection differences between a trained special victim’s detective and untrained individuals; escalation detection for individuals with domestic violence victimization; and physiological arousal during escalation detection.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects with various histories of victimization and perpetration using the Straus conflict tactics scale watched a video of an argument that escalated in conflict while their heart rate and electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured. Participants were asked to pause the tape and write any verbal and non-verbal signal of escalating conflict. The signal coding used deductive, a prioi coding based on Gottman’s (1994, 2011) corrosive behaviors indicative of conflict. A repeated measures general linear model in sex and conflict initiation using two measures of physiological arousal revealed significant effects on EDA while watching escalating conflict as a function of victimization history.

Findings

A series of hypotheses and research questions tested untrained people’s signal detection abilities with a trained, special victim’s unit police investigator as a consequence of male and female-initiated conflict. Untrained viewers reported fewer aggression signals than the police investigator. A repeated measures general linear model using two measures of physiological arousal revealed significant effects on EDA while watching escalating conflict as a function of victimization history. Results are discussed in terms of the signal detection and excitation-transfer theories toward explaining responses to escalating conflict.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study was asking participants to document all abuse while not differentiating between different forms (i.e. emotional, verbal, physical). A future study could investigate how well participants can detect different forms of abuse. This area of research could be beneficial especially in the form of past history. For example, if an individual has been a recipient of emotional abuse, do they detect significantly more signals of emotional abuse than they would for physical abuse?

Practical implications

The findings of our study have could practical publications for advising people who cope with conflict as they vary in their use of negotiation and physical force. The fact that physiological arousal was heightened after exposure to the conflict escalation video as a function of victimization due to physical force has ramifications for watching media with violent content. Therapists could ask survivors if they feel based on their experience, that they could help others to recognize aggressive signals or if they are immune to these signals, given the debate over victim desensitization vs heightened sensitivity.

Social implications

The authors feel it is imperative to note that our current study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of domestic violence in order to ultimately benefit victims in the recovery process and to (ideally) prevent recurrence of domestic violence in the future. This research is not intended to implicate victims in anyway as being responsible for the consequences of domestic violence due to an inability to detect signals of aggression. Indeed, future research should examine how to skillfully advise domestic violence victims while protecting their already vulnerable self-images.

Originality/value

Every day, people are exposed to violence through social media, news, movies and television. Hence, we may become either sensitized to violence or desensitized. These are competing hypotheses that we tested in conjunction with physiological arousal. It is important to analyze reactions to viewing violence due to the sheer amount that is readily disseminated.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Book part

C.M Gaglio

The study of entrepreneurship in the twentieth century can be characterized as the import era: psychological trait theories (Brockhaus & Horowitz, 1986; McClelland, 1965;…

Abstract

The study of entrepreneurship in the twentieth century can be characterized as the import era: psychological trait theories (Brockhaus & Horowitz, 1986; McClelland, 1965; Powell & Bimmerle, 1980); psychological cognition theories (Busenitz, 1999; Katz, 1992); strategy theories (McDougall & Robinson, 1990; Sandberg, 1992); finance theories (Brophy & Shulman, 1992; McMahon & Stanger, 1995); marketing theories (Hills, 1981); population ecology theories (Aldrich, 1990); sociological network theories (Aldrich & Zimmer, 1986; Birley, 1985) and creativity theories (Long & McMullen, 1984) among others were imported to shape the development of entrepreneurship as an academic discipline. Thus far, the results of this prodigious effort are ambiguous at best; findings warrant continued effort in each stream but have to produce consequential insights into the nature, process, and dynamics of entrepreneurship. Why this may be so will be considered later. However, such a track record should prompt considerable reluctance to heed McMullen and Shepherd’s (2003) suggestion to import yet another theorysignal detection – rather than approach the study of entrepreneurship directly. Based on their exposition, such reluctance would be well founded except for the rather exciting fact that the framework has the potential for consequential insights if applied in another way. The purpose of this commentary is to critically evaluate the authors’ conceptualization and outline the alternative.

Details

Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-267-2

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Book part

Jeffery S McMullen and Dean A Shepherd

Gaglio’s work on opportunity recognition (Gaglio, 1997; Gaglio & Katz, 2001) represents an important contribution to the literature and has generated considerable…

Abstract

Gaglio’s work on opportunity recognition (Gaglio, 1997; Gaglio & Katz, 2001) represents an important contribution to the literature and has generated considerable scholarly attention. Therefore, it is with great pleasure that we respond to her commentary on our recent chapter (McMullen & Shepherd, 2003). Central to Gaglio’s commentary is a discussion about the appropriateness of our critique of the literature and a proposed alternate use for signal detection theory in building entrepreneurship theory. Responding to this commentary provides us the opportunity to better articulate our main arguments and to build on Gaglio’s ideas for an alternative application of signal detection theory.

Details

Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-267-2

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Book part

Jeffery S McMullen and Dean A Shepherd

Shane and Venkataraman (2000) suggest “the field [of entrepreneurship] involves the study of sources of opportunities; the processes of discovery, evaluation, and…

Abstract

Shane and Venkataraman (2000) suggest “the field [of entrepreneurship] involves the study of sources of opportunities; the processes of discovery, evaluation, and exploitation of opportunities; and the set of individuals who discover, evaluate, and exploit them” (p. 218). However, the study of the judgment required for opportunity evaluation has been greatly overshadowed by interest in opportunity recognition and to a lesser extent opportunity exploitation. This is surprising considering the number of economic theories of the entrepreneur that recognize sound judgment as a principal quality of entrepreneurship (Cantillon, 1755; Kirzner, 1973; Knight, 1921; Mises, 1949; Say, 1840; Schumpeter, 1934; Shackle, 1955). In fact, the first recognized theory of the entrepreneur defined the entrepreneur as someone who exercises business judgment in the face of uncertainty (Cantillon, 1755/1931, pp. 47–49). Similarly, Knight (1921, p. 271) suggests that the essence of entrepreneurship is judgment, born of uncertainty, and argues that it is this judgment that delineates the function of entrepreneur from that of manager. He goes on to point out that the function of manager does not in itself imply entrepreneurship but that a manager becomes an entrepreneur when he exercises judgment involving liability to error (Knight, 1921, p. 97). However, the judgment referred to by these theorists is not just any form of judgment, it is judgment exercised in the decision of whether to take action.

Details

Cognitive Approaches to Entrepreneurship Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-236-8

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Article

Giacomo Laffranchini, John S. Hadjimarcou, Si Hyun Kim and Mike Braun

The purpose of this paper is to explore the internationalization process of small and medium family-owned businesses (FOBs). The authors strive to explain the extent to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the internationalization process of small and medium family-owned businesses (FOBs). The authors strive to explain the extent to which family business CEOs identify a signal in either the domestic or international environment for internationalization as a viable business opportunity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on signal detection theory to develop a conceptual model that explains the cognitive process inducing the CEO-founder of an FOB to discover and exploit an opportunity in the international market.

Findings

The conceptual model proposes that constraints in a family-firm’s domestic market, as well as opportunities in the foreign market act, as signal strength. However, family business CEO-founders’ centrality and inward orientation might lead them to ignore a signal by generating noise and reducing the motivation to collect further information concerning the trustworthiness of the signal.

Research limitations/implications

The model is conceptual; future research should strive for a potential way to operationalize the cognitive process described herein. In addition, the theoretical argument has been developed in the context of family firms wherein the founder plays a pivotal role. Future research may extend the theoretical arguments to those family firms that are at an advanced stage of development.

Originality/value

The study reconciles conflicting findings concerning the internationalization of FOBs. In doing so, the authors employ an interdisciplinary approach and develop a conceptual model that sheds additional light on the cognitive processes underlying internationalization decisions among founder-centered family firms.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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Article

Khondkar E. Karim and Philip H. Siegel

The purpose of this paper is to apply signal detection theory (SDT) to the problem of detecting management fraud. The use of SDT methodology significantly strengthens…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to apply signal detection theory (SDT) to the problem of detecting management fraud. The use of SDT methodology significantly strengthens understanding of the relationships among audit technology, base rates of management fraud, costs of Type I and Type II errors, extensions of audit procedures, and risk assessments prior and during the audit. The analysis suggests that the auditor must accept disproportionate false alarm rates in order to maintain audit effectiveness in the presence of management fraud. This condition becomes even stronger as the costs of Type II errors increase compared to costs of Type I errors. The study also provides policy implications for auditor practice and standard‐setters.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article

Majid Jaraiedi and Wafik H. Iskander

Signal Detection Theory (SDT) has recently been used to evaluate the performance of imperfect inspectors. SDT model is based on a priori probabilities and perceived…

Abstract

Signal Detection Theory (SDT) has recently been used to evaluate the performance of imperfect inspectors. SDT model is based on a priori probabilities and perceived payoffs and penalties to study inspectors′ behaviour. In this article, Bayes′ theorem is used to compute posterior probabilities of the two types of inspection error. These posterior probabilities give rise to the definition of Receiver Analysis Curves (RAC), which depict the “after the facts” consequences of inspection error. A cost model is also developed that reflects the true benefits and costs of inspection accuracy to the organisation.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article

Junguo Wang, Jianzhong Zhou and Bing Peng

The purpose of this paper is to detect the periodic signal under strong noise background, and estimate its amplitude/phase.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detect the periodic signal under strong noise background, and estimate its amplitude/phase.

Design/methodology/approach

Melnikov method is adopted as calculating the threshold value when chaos occurs, and the detected signal is taken as a system parameter. The system's output state is changed if the parameter has a slight change near the threshold. Meantime, the phase of system's output is recognized to judge whether the output state changes, and the signal parameter is estimated according to the necessary condition.

Findings

A small periodic signal in noise can be detected by Duffing oscillator via a transition from chaotic motion to periodic motion.

Research limitations/implications

The paper shows how to calculate the amplitude/phase in low signal‐to‐noise ratios.

Practical implications

The Duffing system is sensitive to the weak periodic signal and has definite immunity to noise, so it is easy to construct a system composed of many oscillators that could process complex signals, even though the environmental noise is intense.

Originality/value

This paper presents a nonlinear method for detecting and extracting the weak signal.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 38 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article

Lars Skyttner

To enhance the generality and usefulness of classic communication theory, some complementary concepts and ideas have been introduced and commented against the background…

Abstract

To enhance the generality and usefulness of classic communication theory, some complementary concepts and ideas have been introduced and commented against the background of General Living Systems Theory (GLS). The paper begins with an extended definition of the problem of communication and continues with a presentation of the concept of natural channels. Basic ideas like the interrelation between time, place, and channel with its four different categories of communication are presented. Also main qualities of a message like informability, detectability, and localizability are analysed. Finally some general ideas regarding coding and transmission of messages are presented. The paper ends with the conclusion that classic communication theory still is highly relevant with no serious anomalies threatening its existence. This truth is confirmed by the fact that the complementary concepts presented here fit well into its existing framework.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Book part

Gordon Burt

In his soliloquy, Hamlet reasons about the choice of whether to end his life or not. Our own experience of choice contains many such instances of choice as the outcome of…

Abstract

In his soliloquy, Hamlet reasons about the choice of whether to end his life or not. Our own experience of choice contains many such instances of choice as the outcome of a reasoning process. This aspect of choice is not discussed in this book although I would look to Chapter 3 on mathematics, logic, artificial intelligence and ordinary language to provide a route into investigating this aspect.

Details

Conflict, Complexity and Mathematical Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-973-2

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