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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Chunjiao Jiang and Pengcheng Mao

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Si-shu, a traditional form of local, private education grounded in classical instruction, responded to the rapid modernization…

Abstract

Purpose:

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Si-shu, a traditional form of local, private education grounded in classical instruction, responded to the rapid modernization of education during the late Qing dynasty and early Republic of China and to explain why these schools, once extraordinarily adaptable, finally disappeared.

Design/methodology/approach:

The authors have examined both primary and secondary sources, including government reports, education yearbooks, professional annals, public archives, and published research to analyze the social, political and institutional changes that reshaped Si-shu in the context of China's late-19th- and early-20th-century educational modernization.

Findings:

Si-shu went through four stages of institutional change during the last century. First, they faced increased competition from new-style (westernized) schools during the late Qing dynasty. Second, they engaged in a process of intense self-reform, particularly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Third, they were marginalized by the new educational systems of the Republic of China, especially the Renxu School System of 1922 and the Wuchen School System of 1928. Finally, after the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, they were considered remnants of feudal culture and forcibly replaced by modern schools.

Originality/value:

This paper brings hitherto unexplored Chinese sources to an English-speaking audience in an effort to shed new light on the history of traditional Chinese education. The fate of Si-shu was part of the larger modernization of Chinese education – a development that had both advantages and disadvantages.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2021

Adam Nelson and Wang Huimin

Abstract

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2021

Wenkai Zhou, Zhilin Yang and Michael R. Hyman

This study aims to summarize the important contextual influences East Asian philosophy may have on marketing strategy and consumerism.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to summarize the important contextual influences East Asian philosophy may have on marketing strategy and consumerism.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach is used to deconstruct (1) the literature on marketing as a contextual discipline, (2) East Asian philosophical underpinnings and their personal and institutional manifestations in East Asian marketing contexts, and (3) the implications for non-East Asian marketers. This essay includes a brief introduction to the manuscripts in this special issue.

Findings

Ancient philosophical wisdom shared by East Asian societies can shed light on how marketing activities and consumer behavior intertwine within East Asia and beyond. Three ancient philosophies (i.e. Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism) heavily influence East Asian societies through personal and institutional-level cultural manifestations in marketing contexts.

Research limitations/implications

Although the three discussed East Asian philosophical schools are not exhaustive, they lay a foundation for future discussions about how alternative marketing-related theories and frameworks may complement ones grounded in western historical and cultural contexts.

Originality/value

This essay initiates an overdue academic discussion about relying on non-western historical and cultural contexts to globalize the marketing discipline further.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Yong Han, Ian Brooks, Nada K. Kakabadse, Zhenglong Peng and Yi Zhu

This paper explores the “Western” concept of psychological capital in the People's Republic of China (PRC) and highlights critical areas of divergence and notable…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the “Western” concept of psychological capital in the People's Republic of China (PRC) and highlights critical areas of divergence and notable dimensions of similarity.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study conducted in a wide range of Chinese organisational forms, employing an inductive approach based on critical incident technique.

Findings

This research showed that the concept of psychological capital appears to have a degree of applicability and salience in China. A series of dimensions common in Western organisations were found in our research, including Optimism, Creativity, Resiliency, Self‐confidence, Forgiveness and Gratitude, Courage and Ambition (Hope). These were found to be common types of psychological capital both in China and in the West. However, the dimensions of Courtesy and Humility (Qian‐gong‐you‐li in Chinese), Self‐possession and Sincerity fell into the “different” category.

Originality/value

This paper is a first attempt to examine psychological capital in a range of organisational forms and industrial sectors in China using a grounded theory approach. It not only reports various dimensions of Chinese psychological capital, some unique to this research, but also compares and contrasts these dimensions between China and the West, highlighting further research opportunities.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Yong Han and Yochanan Altman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Confucian moral standards may serve as a moral root of employees' organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Confucian moral standards may serve as a moral root of employees' organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is conceptual, based on research within the field.

Findings

This paper suggests that the moral characteristics of Confucianism (based on a strong body of empirical studies): harmony, group orientation, guanxi (relationships), diligence, self‐learning and thrift, are the great virtues of the indigenous forms of OCB in the PRC, including helping co‐worker; individual initiative and/or functional participation; group activity participation; self‐development; social welfare participation; promoting company image; voice; protecting and saving company resources; interpersonal harmony and keeping the workplace clean; and keeping departmental harmony and coexistence in adversity.

Originality/value

First, this paper contributes to the extant knowledge as to the ways in which Confucian moral standards may affect Chinese exhibition of OCB. Second, this paper contributes to discerning Chinese economic success on employees' OCB performance with recourse to its traditional cultural heritage of Confucian moral standards. Finally, it highlights the presence of voice as a type of OCB which may be attributed to China's opening up to the West.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Li Zhi, Li Jianling, Zhao Nan and Luo Zhangli

The purpose of this paper is to construct the structure of Chinese enterprise managers' human‐nature view with Chinese characteristics, and also to make comparison…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to construct the structure of Chinese enterprise managers' human‐nature view with Chinese characteristics, and also to make comparison analysis on human‐nature views of managers from different types of enterprises, and between managers and ordinary employees. Finally, this paper proposes some human resource management (HRM) suggestions for enterprises in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructs Chinese enterprise managers' humanity view model with Chinese characteristics. First, relevant studies about humanity assumptions from both China and the West are reviewed, followed by the hypotheses of this study. Then, the study adopts the self‐compiled enterprise managers' humanity view questionnaire (EMHVQ), together with interviews, to study managers' views on humanity in Chinese background.

Findings

The humanity view of Chinese enterprise managers has its uniqueness. Its structure is first level with two factors and second level with ten factors, an organic unity of “human complexity” and “human interests”. The two factors of the first level are “human complexity” and “human interests”. The dimension “human complexity” includes seven factors: complexity of human needs, validity of reward and punishment, work competency, groupism of behaviors, positivity of attitudes, contingency of management and influence of interpersonal relations; the dimension “human interests” includes three factors: driving function of profits, evasion of responsibility and dependency of incentives. Remarkable differences exist in humanity views among managers from different types of enterprises and between managers and ordinary employees, which will exert great influence on the management style of enterprises in China.

Originality/value

Both in China and the West, few scholars or experts adopt empirical research to construct the structure of managers' humanity‐view model specifically based on China's cultural background. This paper not only contributes to the further development of this field, but also provides valuable suggestions for HRM, both for China and the rest of the world.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Guoquan Chen

This paper aims to establish an organizational learning system model based on both western and Chinese management thoughts.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to establish an organizational learning system model based on both western and Chinese management thoughts.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is a conceptual model which is based on research within the field.

Findings

The model consists of nine interrelated organizational learning sub‐systems including “discovering”, “innovating”, “selecting”, “executing”, “transferring”, “reflecting”, “acquiring knowledge from environment”, “contributing knowledge to environment”, and “building organizational memory” ones. The evidences in some famous Chinese traditional cultural classics (including Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean, The Analects of Confucius, Book of Change, Tao‐Te‐Ching, The Art of War and Chuan‐Xi‐Lu) that support the rationale of the model are described and analyzed.

Originality/value

Several propositions are developed and it is hoped that the model is applicable in both eastern and western business environments.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Dong Kong and JunJie Zhang

Established on the detailed exploration of Chinese ancient management philosophies (CAMPs), the purpose of this paper is to extract enlightenments from CAMPs to see…

Abstract

Purpose

Established on the detailed exploration of Chinese ancient management philosophies (CAMPs), the purpose of this paper is to extract enlightenments from CAMPs to see whether there exist some similarities between CAMPs and contemporary human resources management thoughts (CHRMTs) and pinpoint CAMPs' implications on human resource management practices nowadays.

Design/methodology/approach

Inspired by Lao Tzu's “When we can lay hold of the Dao of old to direct the things of the present day, and are able to know it as it was of old in the beginning, this is called (unwinding) the clue of Dao”, the paper explores, categorizes and integrates wisdom stemmed from CAMPs to evaluate whether there exist some commonly accepted arguments between CAMPs and CHRMTs.

Findings

CAMPs which have been passed on by generations for the past 2,500 years in China provide firm ground for human resources management thoughts and practices development; CAMPs' emphasis on people's well cultured morality and highly developed virtues has kindled a light to illuminate human resources management practices, not only in the past but also in the future. CHRMTs' principles concerning “people‐centered strategies”, employee recruitment and selection strategies, employee training and education strategies, staffing as well as employee retention strategies, can all trace their sources from CAMPs.

Originality/value

The research on CAMPs is not only significant to complement and extend CHRMTs but also useful to direct current human resource management practices.

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Connie Zheng and David Lamond

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevant sayings and stories of the ancient Chinese sages in relation to the style of Chinese human resource management (HRM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevant sayings and stories of the ancient Chinese sages in relation to the style of Chinese human resource management (HRM).

Design/methodology/approach

Related texts generated from the quotations and stories from four Chinese sages, Guanzi, Hanfeizi, Xunzi and Yanzi, were translated and analyzed and their thinking regarding ruling the state and managing the people was discussed in line with the thoughts from the mainstream and modern Western management gurus such as Warren Bennis, Peter Drucker, Mary Parker Follett, Douglas McGregor, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Elton Mayo and Jeffrey Pfeffer.

Findings

It was found that there were striking similarities in thoughts and call for actions to address key issues in HRM by both old and contemporary, east and west thinkers across 2,500 years. The main concerns are to select the right leaders and managers and recruit the right people; create attractive organisational culture and environments that promote a participative management approach to encourage, empower and engage employees to achieve desirable outcomes; uphold the people‐centred management principles; and focus on designing reward schemes that emphasise service and contribution instead of position and profits.

Originality/value

There is much to be learned from the past to address the present people management issues among modern organisations both inside China and perhaps from other parts of the world. It was as difficult to take seriously the principles‐based ruling and management approaches in ancient times as it is today. However, if these principles had been put into practice, the world would have had fewer of the corporate corruption scandals and less of the mischievous behaviour in the state that are manifested in today's society, but more productive population, effective organisations, ethical governments and harmonious environment; hence less global human suffering.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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