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Development of new cultivars requires extensive genetic knowledge, trained personnel, and significant financial resources, so it is crucial for breeders to focus on the…
Development of new cultivars requires extensive genetic knowledge, trained personnel, and significant financial resources, so it is crucial for breeders to focus on the attributes most preferred by the key supply chain stakeholders such as consumers and producers. The purpose of this paper is to identify which attributes generate the highest total revenue or social surplus, information that breeders can take into account as they allocate resources to focus on attributes in their breeding programs.
This study used mail-in and online surveys to collect consumer and producer choice experiment data, and then employed mixed logit models to analyze and simulate individual producer and consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for the apple attributes.
Based on the simulation results, this study derived the supply and demand curves and the market equilibrium prices and quantities for each apple attribute. Based on the WTP analysis for both consumer and producer, this paper found the highest equilibrium price and welfare for apples come from crispness, followed by flavor.
The authors propose a framework to estimate the equilibrium prices and quantities of a product based on the results of choice experiments. The framework can be easily adapted to understand any countries’ producer and consumer preferences for certain products.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causal relationship between the prices of rice, crude oil, wheat, corn and soybean in China and estimate the long-run and…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causal relationship between the prices of rice, crude oil, wheat, corn and soybean in China and estimate the long-run and short-run price relationships.
Using monthly price date over the period of January 1998-December 2013 in China, this paper employs an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test to explore the cointegration relationship among the price variables and estimate the ARDL long-run price relationship and the short-run error correction process (ARDL-EC).
The empirical results indicate that crude oil, as one of the forcing variables along with wheat, corn, and soybean prices, is effecting rice price in China. Both the long-run and short-run price transmission elasticity estimates suggest the importance of crude oil price on the formation of rice prices. Furthermore, the adjustment speed coefficient is found to be statistically significant, supporting the notion that there is an error correction mechanism for maintaining the long-run price relationship facing short-run shocks.
This paper adopts four types of commodity food prices to explore the relationships with crude oil price. The evidence of market integration, including the degree of price transmission and the speed of adjustment, remains a crucial step to proceed with the government intervention.
This chapter examines the changing state–university–student relationships in post/socialist China since the late 1980s. We begin with an introduction to four salient…
This chapter examines the changing state–university–student relationships in post/socialist China since the late 1980s. We begin with an introduction to four salient themes in scholarship on Chinese post/socialism that are highly relevant to higher education: globalization, gradualism, civic society, and a critique of holism. These themes help us explain interrelated educational trends that affect the state–university–student relationship: the globalization, “massification,” and stratification of higher education; the redefined role of the state in university governance and management; higher education marketization and privatization; and the quest for meaning and (e)quality in and through higher education. Our general argument is that during the “socialist” period the main relationship central to higher learning was between the state and students. Universities were agents of the state; from a legal point of view, indeed, universities did not have an independent status from the state. In the “post-socialist” era the university–student relationship has become more significant. We examine this reconfiguration through two case studies, one on the development of college student grievance and rights consciousness, and the other on reforms in higher education student services administration. When looked at from the point of view of the state, we see that appropriation and implementation of policies and regulations shaping student rights and services are in partial contradiction with state policies to accelerate economic growth and bolster party authority. From the point of view of universities, we see institutions grappling with how to deliver on forward-looking structures and actions while navigating between the state's policy mandates and growing expectations and demands of its student and business stakeholders. From the point of view of students, we see how constrained agency, uncertainty, and the power of the credential motivates social praxis. At all levels of the state–institution–student relationship actors are employing a kind of pragmatic improvisation (one of the salient features of post/socialism) captured by the well-known Chinese proverb “groping for stones to cross the river.” This saying is an apt metaphor for the tentative searching by state, institution, and individual for a safe foothold in the post/socialist world.