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Yasir Riaz, Yasir Shahab, Robina Bibi and Shumaila Zeb
The purpose of this paper is to provide new insights about investment-cash flow sensitivities (ICFS) as a representative of financial constraints, by examining panel data…
The purpose of this paper is to provide new insights about investment-cash flow sensitivities (ICFS) as a representative of financial constraints, by examining panel data consisting of 288 listed firms in Pakistan.
This study uses a panel data methodology and first difference generalized method of moments to control the problems of heterogeneity and endogeneity. By five different criteria, estimations are made for full and pre-classified sub-samples. Sargan test and Arellano-Bond serial correlation statistic are used for identification and validation of instruments and model.
According to the results, the ICFS has increased monotonically with the level of financial constraints. Further, the results depict that ICFS for the constrained group is much higher as compared to the unconstrained group. Overall, the result illustrates positively significant ICFS.
This study confirms signs of imperfections in the capital market, which leads to financial markets inaccessibility preceded by high under-investment costs and low social and economic development. Thus, proper policy designing and instigation are necessary for the subsidies, taxation, and foreign direct investment and later for financial market development and promotion of private corporate investment.
Previous studies have mostly focused on developed countries where large listed companies work in well-developed financial markets and do not face severe financial constraints because of the greater market integration (Bekaert et al., 2011, 2013) and superior investor protection laws (Djankov et al., 2008; La porta et al., 1998). However, this study focuses on listed companies from the emerging Pakistani market, which will bring forth the interesting aspects of ICFS and will enhance the existing literature effectively.
Naveed Ahmad, Amran Harun, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Khizar, Junaid Khalid and Shumaila Khan
The purpose of this study is to examine the drivers and barriers of travel behavior associated with tourist behavior during/post-COVID-19 pandemic to provide a knowledge…
The purpose of this study is to examine the drivers and barriers of travel behavior associated with tourist behavior during/post-COVID-19 pandemic to provide a knowledge base as well as an agenda for future research.
The authors utilized the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) technique for searching the articles published in Web of Science (WOS) and Scopus, to identify the main drivers and barriers affecting the tourist behavior during/post-COVID-19 pandemic. Eventually, 47 articles were chosen for the final analysis.
The findings are reported in three sections, (1) quantitative research profile, (2) qualitative synthesis and (3) future agenda. This study addresses the nuanced questions regarding the significant change in tourist travel behavior, emotional dynamics and a detailed understanding of mechanisms, such as which drivers and barriers affect tourist behavior in a particular destination. Drivers and barriers to tourist travel behavior were characterized in personal-related, destination-related, and health-related factors. Moreover, this study provides thought-provoking ideas in theory, policy and practice in the field of tourism and hospitality.
This study has three limitations, as follows. First, the authors searched only two databases, Scopus and Web of Science, due to which the authors might be missing some related studies existing on the other databases. Although these databases provide an extensive range of academic literature, further studies could extend the data collection from the other databases (e.g. via Taylor & Francis). However, our systematic literature review (SLR) coverage is quite extensive, since journals are listed on these three main databases. Second, the authors followed a main study search protocol based on the synonyms and related keywords, however, some of the studies that may be related to the tourist behavior towards the destination are missing on account of the lack of our keywords in there, title, author, keyword and abstract. Furthermore, future research could endeavor to add other keywords to expand the results of studies. Third, although the accurate analysis was conducted to reduce subjectivity in identifying themes for drivers and barriers of tourist behavior, future studies on categorization could work to ensure that other sub-themes categorize.
The recent study has some key practical implications. First, this study is valuable for all the stakeholders in a unique way, including destination managers, academicians and policymakers, because it provides insight into barriers and drivers that influence the development of tourist behavior towards the destination. Second, the current study also offers practical implications for people involved in tourism service industries including governments and private businesses. Policymakers and other leaders are increasingly interested in harnessing the economic potential of tourism. Therefore, identifying the barrier which is inhibiting the tourist traffic towards the destination is beneficial to understand and effectively develop strategies to minimize the effect of such factors. Moreover, drivers and barriers of tourist behavior towards the destination in the COVID-19 pandemic situation towards the destination may help to create a framework for the development of destinations according to the current vulnerable situation. Third, current findings suggest that tourism marketers understand the drivers and barrier constructs found in this study and tailor their marketing strategies for attracting existing and new tourists. For instance, marketers should understand the drivers and barriers of tourist behavior for effective strategy development to increase the positive effect of drivers and to reduce the negative effect of barriers.
This is the first systematic literature review on the impact of drivers and barriers of tourist travel behavior. This paper analyses the methods and approaches that have been used in the previous literature to examine the drivers and barriers of tourist travel behavior. The paper ends with the research implication and limitations of the studies.