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The purpose of this paper is to overcome the weakness of the traditional model, in which the grey action quantity is a real number and thus leads to a “unique solution”…
The purpose of this paper is to overcome the weakness of the traditional model, in which the grey action quantity is a real number and thus leads to a “unique solution” and to build the model with a trapezoidal possibility degree function.
Using the system input and output block diagram of the model, the interval grey action quantity is restored under the condition of insufficient system influencing factors, and the trapezoidal possibility degree function is formed. Based on that, a new model able to output non-unique solutions is constructed.
The model satisfies the non-unique solution principle of the grey theory under the condition of insufficient information. The model is compatible with the traditional model in structure and modelling results. The validity and practicability of the new model are verified by applying it in simulating the ecological environment water consumption in the Yangtze River basin.
In this study, the interval grey number form of grey action quantity is restored under the condition of insufficient system influencing factors, and the unique solution to the problem of the traditional model is solved. It is of great value in enriching the theoretical system of grey prediction models.
Taking power consumption as an example, the accurate prediction of the future power consumption level is related to the utilization efficiency of the power infrastructure investment. If the prediction of the power consumption level is too low, it will lead to the insufficient construction of the power infrastructure and the frequent occurrence of “power shortage” in the power industry. If the prediction is too high, it will lead to excessive investment in the power infrastructure. As a result, the overall surplus of power supply will lead to relatively low operation efficiency. Therefore, building an appropriate model for the correct interval prediction is a better way to solve such problems. The model proposed in this study is an effective one to solve such problems.
A new grey prediction model with its interval grey action quantity based on the trapezoidal possibility degree function is proposed for the first time.
This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/02634509910260922. When citing the article, please cite: Shuliang Li, Yanqing Duan, Russell Kinman, John S. Edwards, (1999), “A framework for a hybrid intelligent system in support of marketing strategy development”, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 17 Iss 2 pp. 70 - 79.
Explores the potential of a hybrid intelligent system in supporting marketing strategy development. First, a hybrid intelligent system for developing marketing strategy…
Explores the potential of a hybrid intelligent system in supporting marketing strategy development. First, a hybrid intelligent system for developing marketing strategy, called MarStra (developed by the author), is outlined. Then discusses the real‐world tests of MarStra with marketing directors in five large UK companies. Empirical evidence from the companies involved indicates that MarStra is very helpful and useful in: providing strategic analysis guidance; coupling strategic analysis with managerial judgement; helping strategic thinking; dealing with fuzziness and uncertainty; and supporting group assessment of strategic marketing factors. The intelligent outputs generated by MarStra were reported to be surprisingly accurate, mostly sound and useful prompts.
An intelligent hybrid system, called GloStra (developed by the author), for developing global marketing strategy and associated Internet marketing strategy is reported in…
An intelligent hybrid system, called GloStra (developed by the author), for developing global marketing strategy and associated Internet marketing strategy is reported in this paper. The hybrid system is built to integrate the strengths of expert systems, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and decision support technology; and to link the development of global marketing strategy with the formulation of associated Internet marketing strategy. In the paper, the system architecture, the functional modules of the hybrid system and other associated technical issues are addressed. The directions for further research in this field are also highlighted.
This paper reports a web‐based intelligent system, called WebStra, for the formulation of marketing strategies and associated e‐commerce strategies. In the paper, the…
This paper reports a web‐based intelligent system, called WebStra, for the formulation of marketing strategies and associated e‐commerce strategies. In the paper, the architecture and functional components of the WebStra system are described. The system's effectiveness and efficiency are also evaluated. WebStra can be applied to support real‐world strategic marketing decision making. It may also be used as a useful tool for training and consultancy purposes.
Reports on an investigation of computer‐based support for developing marketing strategy. First, on the basis of a literature study, the nature of marketing strategy…
Reports on an investigation of computer‐based support for developing marketing strategy. First, on the basis of a literature study, the nature of marketing strategy development is clarified. The needs for computer‐based support are identified. The status and underlying problems of existing computer‐based information systems for developing marketing strategy are then examined. Finally, a mail questionnaire survey on computer‐based support for developing marketing strategy is discussed. The major issues addressed in the survey were: managers’ needs for computer‐based support in developing marketing strategy; the current provision of computer‐based information systems; and the gaps between the identified needs and current provision. It is believed that this was the first study to use a large‐scale questionnaire survey to explore these issues. The findings provide important evidence and implications for both researchers and designers of computer‐based support for marketing strategy development.
A hybrid approach for integrating group Delphi, fuzzy logic and expert systems for developing marketing strategies is proposed in this paper. Within this approach, the…
A hybrid approach for integrating group Delphi, fuzzy logic and expert systems for developing marketing strategies is proposed in this paper. Within this approach, the group Delphi method is employed to help groups of managers undertake SWOT analysis. Fuzzy logic is applied to fuzzify the results of SWOT analysis. Expert systems are utilised to formulate marketing strategies based upon the fuzzified strategic inputs. In addition, guidelines are also provided to help users link the hybrid approach with managerial judgement and intuition. The effectiveness of the hybrid approach has been validated with MBA and MA marketing students. It is concluded that the hybrid approach is more effective in terms of decision confidence, group consensus, helping to understand strategic factors, helping strategic thinking, and coupling analysis with judgement, etc.
A framework for a hybrid intelligent support system is proposed, on the basis of a discussion of the main problems of current computer‐based support systems and the roles…
A framework for a hybrid intelligent support system is proposed, on the basis of a discussion of the main problems of current computer‐based support systems and the roles for computer‐based systems in developing marketing strategy. The objectives of the framework are: to integrate the strengths of different support techniques and technologies; to assist strategic analysis; to couple strategic analysis with managers’ judgement; to help managers deal with uncertainty; and to aid strategic thinking. Within this framework, the benefits of different strategic analysis models are combined to offer enhanced support for a logical sequence of strategic analysis, while the advantages of diverse support techniques and technologies are integrated and fitted to support different aspects of the marketing strategy development process. As well as the theoretical basis for the proposed framework, the paper also examines the associated technical issues.
The purpose of this paper is to: determine which criteria of the car insurance brokers' web sites are important or unimportant; establish how well those criteria are…
The purpose of this paper is to: determine which criteria of the car insurance brokers' web sites are important or unimportant; establish how well those criteria are presented on the car insurance brokers’ web sites; and find out whether the consumer’s final decision to purchase the product is influenced by the web sites' characteristics, the price, etc.
The evaluation method employed in this study is the extended web assessment method (EWAM), which is an evaluation tool specifically created for the assessment of electronic commerce applications. A double questionnaire survey has been undertaken to collect data from 28 finance advisers in an independent financial advisory firm in the UK.
The preliminary findings suggest that the majority of the assessed web site criteria fall in the categories of “maintain strategy” and “no immediate improvement necessary” with certain web site features considered as “strategic overkill” or “improvement necessary”. It is also found that the web sites are utilised as a tool for shopping around for quotes but the final purchase would be made by most consumers via the telephone.
It is important to mention that an empirical study with a sample of 28 insurance advisers in one financial advisory company can only reflect a limited picture of current practice in the UK car insurance brokers market. Therefore, the findings reported in this paper are tentative and preliminary. To test or confirm relevant findings reported here, further evaluation work with a larger number of assessors having different backgrounds may be necessary.
While the majority of the assessed web site criteria fall in the “maintain strategy” and “no immediate improvement necessary” fields, efforts should be made by practitioners to improve site maps, site search, and insurers’ details for quotes.
This paper provides useful information for UK car insurance brokers and web sites developers.