Search results1 – 3 of 3
The wax deposition in oil wells and pipelines is very viciously negative to the petroleum extraction and crude oil transportation, and it even causes severe blockage…
The wax deposition in oil wells and pipelines is very viciously negative to the petroleum extraction and crude oil transportation, and it even causes severe blockage accident. This study aims to describe cleaning experiments performed on wax deposition of different deposition layer and experimental conditions to investigate the removal and tribological properties and chip formation.
An optical arrangement was used to visually record the cleaning process, whereas the friction forces were measured by a custom-built tribometer. Various measurements were performed with tool rake angles of 45° and −30° and cleaning depths from 1 to 5 mm.
Results from experiments and modeling suggest that the transition of chip was dependent on rake angle, wax performance and cleaning depth. While the cleaning depth increased, the friction and cleaning resistant force also increased. With the increase of cleaning depth, the wax layer cleaning quantity increased and the chip strengthened; hence, the curvature radius of chip was enhanced to form platy chip. The chip of wax–oil mixture was discontinuous units, and it was easy to adhere on the rake face with the increasing depth of cut. With an increase in cleaning depth, the friction and cleaning-resistant force also increased.
It is concluded that for effectively cleaning and stabilizing of pipeline cleaning machine, different cleaning parameters should be applied to accommodate wax layer or wax–oil mixture.
The purpose of this paper is to study the tribology behavior of steel–steel contact under the lubrication of water-based drilling mud with different oleic acid-filled…
The purpose of this paper is to study the tribology behavior of steel–steel contact under the lubrication of water-based drilling mud with different oleic acid-filled microcapsules as lubricant additives.
A ball-on-disc tribometer was used to evaluate the lubrication properties of the steel–steel contact. The wear tracks of the worn surfaces were observed by a scanning electron microscope.
Results show that the dependence of both friction and wear on the category of additives shares a consistent pattern. In contrast to oleic acid and empty microcapsules, oleic acid-filled microcapsules achieve the best tribological performance which is related to the lubricant effect of oleic acid and the isolation and rolling abilities of microcapsules.
This study provides a helpful method of encapsulated lubricant additives to prolong lubrication performance for steel–steel contact.
This study has applied microcapsules to improve the tribological properties of drilling mud.
The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-08-2019-0320/
The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for the fabrication of a large-scaled muscle scaffold containing an artificial hollow tube network, which may solve…
The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for the fabrication of a large-scaled muscle scaffold containing an artificial hollow tube network, which may solve the problems of nutrient supply, oxygen exchange and metabolic waste removal.
In this paper, a ferric chloride structural strength-enhanced sodium alginate hollow tube was used to build the hollow tube network. Gelatin infill was then added to make a large alginate/gelation gel soft tissue scaffold. A pilot experiment was performed and an osmotic test platform was built to study the perfusion and osmotic ability of the 3D printed hollow tube. The essential fabrication parameters (printing velocity and gap) for building the vascular (i.e., hollow tube) network-contained scaffold were investigated. Moreover, cells in culture were spread within the gelation scaffold, and the circulation characteristics of the hollow tube network were studied.
The printed large-scaled scaffold that contained a ferric chloride structural strength-enhanced sodium alginate hollow tube had good perfusion ability. The osmotic distance of the hollow tube reached 3.7 mm in 8 h in this experiment.
The osmotic distance was confirmed by perfusing a phenol solution; although it is more reliable to test for cell viability, this will be investigated in our later research.
This research may provide new insights in the area of tissue engineering for large-scaled vascularized scaffold fabrication.
This paper presents a new method for fabricating large-scaled scaffolds, and the perfusion ability and osmotic distance of a ferric chloride structural strength-enhanced sodium alginate hollow tube are shown.