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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Satoko Otani and Shu Yamada

Global warming has become one of the most important issues in today's world, and business behavior to prevent global warming is receiving more attention from stakeholders…

Abstract

Purpose

Global warming has become one of the most important issues in today's world, and business behavior to prevent global warming is receiving more attention from stakeholders. Mandatory domestic emission trading schemes have not been implemented in Japan as of June 2011, resulting in more discretion being given to companies to set their carbon management strategies, especially in selecting optimal targets and measures to achieve them. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that quality function deployment for environment (QFDE), developed by incorporating environmental aspects into quality function deployment (QFD) in order to simultaneously handle environmental and traditional product quality requirements, can provide a framework for selecting targets and measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply a three‐step approach: first, a framework for selecting measures is derived through a review of good‐practice activities in two leading companies; second, a framework based on QFDE is generalized by collecting key elements through a literature review of environmental and corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports published by 35 companies; and third, the usefulness of the framework is verified through case studies.

Findings

The main outcomes of this study are the derivation of a hierarchical framework with QFDE as its base and verification, through the use of case studies, of the applicability of the framework as a template, as well as an effective communication tool to be used for setting targets and selecting measures.

Originality/value

The framework will be useful for companies which voluntarily set targets and select measures that could form an essential part of their carbon reduction strategies, based on QFDE concepts.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2016

Jana Hili, Desmond Pace and Simon Grima

The uncertainty as to whether investments in riskier and less efficient markets allow managers to ‘beat the market’ remains a question to which answers are required…

Abstract

Purpose

The uncertainty as to whether investments in riskier and less efficient markets allow managers to ‘beat the market’ remains a question to which answers are required. Accordingly, the purpose of this chapter is to offer new insights on portfolios of the US, European and Emerging Market (‘EM’) domiciled equity mutual funds whose objectives are the investment in emerging economies, and specifically analyses two main issues: alpha generation and the influence of the funds’ characteristics on their risk-adjusted performance.

Methodology/approach

The dataset is made up a survivorship-bias controlled sample of 137 equity funds over the period January 2004 to December 2014, which are then grouped into equally weighted portfolios according to the scheme’s origin. The Jensen’s (1968) Single-Factor model along with the Fama and French’s (1993) and Carhart’s (1997) multifactor models are employed to authenticate results and answer both research questions.

Findings

Research analysis reveals that EM exposed fund managers fail to collectively outperform the market. It thereby offers ground to believe that the emerging world is very close to being efficient, proving that the Efficient Market Hypothesis (‘EMH’) ideal exists in this scenario where market inefficiency might only be a perception of market participants as any apparent opportunity to achieve above-average returns is speedily snapped up by very active managers. Overall these managers take a conservative approach to portfolio construction, whereby they are more unperturbed investing in large cap equity funds so as to lessen somewhat the exposure towards risks associated with liquidity, stability and volatility.

Furthermore, the findings show that large-sized equity portfolios have the lead over the medium and small-sized competitors, whilst the high cost and mature collective investment vehicles enjoy an alpha which although is negative is superior to their peers. The riskiest funds generated the lowest alpha, and thereby produced doubts as to whether investors should accept a higher risk for the hope of earning higher returns, at least when aiming to gain an exposure into the emerging world.

Originality/value

Mutual fund performance is not an innovative topic so to speak. Nonetheless, researchers and academia have centred their efforts on appraising the behaviour of fund managers domiciled primarily in developed and more efficient economics, leaving the emerging region highly uncovered in this respect. This study, therefore aims at crafting meaningful contributions to the literature as well as to the practical perspective.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Bank Financial Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-000-8

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2000

Shu Yamada

QS‐9000 was established by Chrysler, Ford, General Motors and some Truck Manufacturers to solve problems of efforts to prepare original standards for each company. When we…

Abstract

QS‐9000 was established by Chrysler, Ford, General Motors and some Truck Manufacturers to solve problems of efforts to prepare original standards for each company. When we compare the requirements in QS‐9000 with those in ISO 9000, we may observe that those of QS‐9000 are more specific, since the user of the standard is limited to the automobile industry. In particular, the requirements on stastistical technique are described in more detail. In this paper, we present the requirements on statistical techniques in QS‐9000. Specifically, we review the contents of QS‐9000 and explore the philosophy and the minimum requirement on statistical techniques behind the description.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Hirotaka Inoue and Shu Yamada

The purpose of this report is to present the critical factors necessary for process improvement in pharmaceutical research.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this report is to present the critical factors necessary for process improvement in pharmaceutical research.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross‐organizational process improvement projects, which can increase productivity as well as shorten cycle time in drug discovery, are used to determine the critical factors for success. A morphological analysis is conducted on these critical factors followed by KeyGraph visualization in a post‐process improvement survey.

Findings

Four scenarios, which are beneficial for process improvement, are explored through application of the KeyGraph. The critical factors identified are project scheduling, automation, resource management, and process improvement methodology. The project leaders also addressed critical factors, such as top management support, shared goals, and a data‐driven approach. The step for improvement is in alignment with the typical quality improvement process in most process improvement initiatives.

Originality/value

The identified critical factors for success provide a guide to process improvement during pharmaceutical research. In addition, the KeyGraph framework provides a practical approach to discovering the factors that contribute to success.

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2003

Shu Yamada and Jun Harashima

A reducing variation of quality characteristics is a typical example of quality improvement. In such a case, we treat the quality characteristic, as a response variable…

Abstract

A reducing variation of quality characteristics is a typical example of quality improvement. In such a case, we treat the quality characteristic, as a response variable and need to find active factors affecting the response from many candidate factors since reducing the variation of the response will be achieved by reducing variation of the active factors. In this paper, we first derive a method of selecting an active factor by linear regression. It is well known that correlation between factors deteriorates the precision of estimators. We, therefore, examine robustness of the selecting method against the correlation in the data set and derive an evaluation method of the deterioration brought by the correlation. Furthermore, some examples of selecting and evaluation methods are shown to demonstrate practical usage of the methods.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2001

Shu Yamada

It is widely recognized that ISO 9000 certification bring some profits, such as enhancement of quality system and some concerns. Since one of the major concerns is cost…

Abstract

It is widely recognized that ISO 9000 certification bring some profits, such as enhancement of quality system and some concerns. Since one of the major concerns is cost for certification, this paper considers the cost for ISO 9000 certification in Japanese companies through review some winning reports and case studies. Specifically, a model that describes the certification activities and their cost is derived through reviewing some winning reports in order to give a framework of cost estimation. Based on the model, we estimate the certification cost in an electric division of a company through an interview survey. Furthermore, we focused on the cost for promotion and administration as a cost for the sake only certification, because these activities will not be needed if a company does not implement ISO certification. It is concluded that this cost may vary approximately 300,000‐700,000 (US$) per certification by the interview and telephone surveys to Japanese stell companies.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Hirotaka Inoue and Shu Yamada

Quality management tools such as failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) have been implemented in various industries to improve quality. This report aims to demonstrate…

Abstract

Purpose

Quality management tools such as failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) have been implemented in various industries to improve quality. This report aims to demonstrate that FMEA can be applied as a performance improvement tool, based on case analysis of process improvement conducted for a drug discovery project.

Design/methodology/approach

The main points of the proposed FMEA process include: inclusion of an interface that makes it easy to visualize complicated processes in pharmaceutical research; identification of undesirable effects to indicate process defects; and a quantitative estimate of the undesirable effects related to quality and efficiency.

Findings

The effectiveness of the proposed FMEA process was evaluated based on in vivo screening/profiling during early drug discovery. The process targeted for improvement was visualized using a flow diagram. The undesirable effects identified included waiting, false operations, and errors in the decision‐making and reporting processes. The most serious flaws, determined by risk priority numbers for each category, were waiting and false operations.

Originality/value

The effectiveness of the proposed FMEA was demonstrated by applying the analysis to another in vivo profiling process. Quantitative evaluation of the undesirable effects determined that they were reasonable. This provides a benefit for scientists seeking to improve the drug discovery process.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Jostein Pettersen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the definition of lean production and the methods and goals associated with the concept as well as how it differs from other…

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20956

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the definition of lean production and the methods and goals associated with the concept as well as how it differs from other popular management concepts.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a review of the contemporary literature on lean production, both journal articles and books.

Findings

It is shown in the paper that there is no consensus on a definition of lean production between the examined authors. The authors also seem to have different opinions on which characteristics should be associated with the concept. Overall it can be concluded that lean production is not clearly defined in the reviewed literature. This divergence can cause some confusion on a theoretical level, but is probably more problematic on a practical level when organizations aim to implement the concept. This paper argues that it is important for an organization to acknowledge the different variations, and to raise the awareness of the input in the implementation process. It is further argued that the organization should not accept any random variant of lean, but make active choices and adapt the concept to suit the organization's needs. Through this process of adaptation, the organization will be able to increase the odds of performing a predictable and successful implementation.

Originality/value

This paper provides a critical perspective on the discourse surrounding lean production, and gives an input to the discussion of the implementation of management models.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2016

Changsong Niu and Jing Liu

This chapter aims to investigate and interpret China’s educational aid by analyzing its history, philosophies, and practices in Africa. The study is based on review and…

Abstract

This chapter aims to investigate and interpret China’s educational aid by analyzing its history, philosophies, and practices in Africa. The study is based on review and analysis of governmental documents, reports, academic papers, and news by Chinese and foreign scholars on China’s aid, particularly educational aid to Africa. The analysis unveils three transformations of China’s aid “from pro-ideology to de-ideology,” “from single area to multiple areas,” and “from pragmatic economy driven to sustainable and humane economy focused” in Africa. Meanwhile, it indicates a continuity of the philosophy of solidarity, morality, and reciprocity in China’s South-South cooperation with African educational development.

The analysis also shows China’s educational aid does not match well with the framework of the Western donors. China, under the FOCAC framework, is devoted to higher education cooperation, human resources training program, scholarship, and Chinese language education with African partners. With the growth of its economic and political influence, China will play multiple roles as the biggest developing country and as an active promoter and provider for South-South cooperation in the negotiation and construction of the post-2015 agenda. Nevertheless, we assume China will keep a pragmatic higher education cooperation with its developing country partners to inclusively link it with business, technology transfer, and people-to-people exchange.

This study delivers a comprehensive review and analysis of paradigm shift, philosophy, mechanism, and practice of China’s educational aid to Africa to fill up the literature gap in this field. It also timely presents China’s stance toward discussion on the post-2015 agenda.

Details

Post-Education-Forall and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Changes with Diversifying Actors and Norms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-271-5

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2019

Qiaoran Zhang, Abdelhafid Zehri, Jiawen Liu, Wei Ke, Shirong Huang, Martí Gutierrez Latorre, Nan Wang, Xiuzhen Lu, Cheng Zhou, Weijuan Xia, Yanpei Wu, Lilei Ye and Johan Liu

This study aims to develop a bimodal nano-silver paste with improved mechanical property and reliability. Silicon carbide (SiC) particles coated with Ag were introduced in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a bimodal nano-silver paste with improved mechanical property and reliability. Silicon carbide (SiC) particles coated with Ag were introduced in nano-silver paste to improve bonding strength between SiC and Ag particles and enhance high-temperature stability of bimodal nano-silver paste. The effect of sintering parameters such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the proportion of SiC particles on mechanical property and reliability of sintered bimodal nano-silver structure were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Sandwich structures consist of dummy chips and copper substrates with nickel and silver coating bonded by nano-silver paste were designed for shear testing. Shear strength testing was conducted to study the influence of SiC particles proportions on the mechanical property of sintered nano-silver joints. The reliability of the bimodal nano-silver paste was evaluated experimentally by means of shear test for samples subjected to thermal aging test at 150°C and humidity and temperature testing at 85°C and 85 per cent RH, respectively.

Findings

Shear strength was enhanced obviously with the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time. The maximum shear strength was achieved for nano-silver paste sintered at 260°C for 10 min. There was a negative correlation between the proportion of SiC particles and shear strength. After thermal aging testing and humidity and temperature testing for 240 h, the shear strength decreased a little. High-temperature stability and high-hydrothermal stability were improved by the addition of SiC particles.

Originality/value

Submicron-scale SiC particles coated with Ag were used as alternative materials to replace part of nano-silver particles to prepare bimodal nano-silver paste due to its high thermal conductivity and excellent mechanical property.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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