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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

Gareth Shaw

The 1960s saw a remarkable boom in Canada's economy, with disposable income per capita increasing over the decade by almost 88 per cent. This was accompanied by…

Abstract

The 1960s saw a remarkable boom in Canada's economy, with disposable income per capita increasing over the decade by almost 88 per cent. This was accompanied by substantial population growth. The major retail sector to be boosted by this social and economic change was the planned shopping centre, which increased its share of total retail trade from 2% in 1956 to over 23% in the mid‐1970s. Dr Gareth Shaw spent some time towards the end of last year on a research project in Canada, where he made a special study of major new shopping complexes. In this feature he outlines the reasons for the rapid growth of shopping centres and looks particularly at one of the most controversial developments, the Eaton Centre in Toronto.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2021

Majd AbedRabbo, Cathy Hart and Fiona Ellis–Chadwick

The purpose of this study is to explore the role played by digital channel integration in the town-centre shopping experience. It also explores how customers perceive the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the role played by digital channel integration in the town-centre shopping experience. It also explores how customers perceive the role of digital in the town-centres shopping journeys, improves shopping experiences and encourages positive future patronage behaviour. Ultimately, the aim is to identify the likely implications of a connected shopping experience on patronage intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research design using focus groups to explore customers' perceptions of connected town-centre shopping experiences was deployed. Then, data were analysed using thematic analysis to identify overarching themes.

Findings

Digital integration has the potential to serve discreetly different functions in the town-centre context: create interconnected information channels, facilitate improved connected shopping experiences, generate positive perceptions of a town, which subsequently shape future patronage intentions. The study also revealed expectations of digital integration are yet to be fully realised in the town-centre context and there are tensions between physical and digital domains to be overcome if digital integration is to positively influence patronage intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The nature of exploratory research tends to pose questions and open out a problem rather than provide definitive answers. This study has sought to highlight key issues and also provide points of departure for future studies. The significance and generalisability of the results are limited by the size and nature of the sample.

Originality/value

This study provides theoretical contribution to the town-centre literature by expanding the understanding of consumers' perceptions of the role of digital integration in shopping journey experiences and unlocks insights into its potential impact on future patronage intentions. Practical considerations for integrating digital in the town centre to create more connected shopping experiences.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2008

Norman Hutchison, Alastair Adair and Julie McWilliam

The paper has two aims: to consider the volatility of the covenant strength risk ratings among the top 25 retailers in the UK over the period 2002 to 2006 and to devise a…

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1348

Abstract

Purpose

The paper has two aims: to consider the volatility of the covenant strength risk ratings among the top 25 retailers in the UK over the period 2002 to 2006 and to devise a risk scoring model for evaluating covenant strength in shopping centres.

Design/methodology/approach

In a shopping centre the risk of tenant default on rental payments is spread over a number of tenants. It is often imagined that this is well diversified risk, but between shopping centres there are differences in the tenant mix and thus in the overall reliability of the cash flow of the investment. However, often information on the overall covenant strength risk score is not available and important differences between shopping centres ignored. This paper analyses credit risk scores of the top 25 retailers in the UK over the period 2002 to 2006 using data supplied by ICC. In addition, case studies of three shopping centres are used to illustrate the use of a covenant strength risk scoring model.

Findings

The analysis demonstrates that within the top 25 retailers significant variations in covenant strength present financial risks to investors highlighting the added value that credit reporting can provide for clients. In addition, the case studies emphasise how tenant change and vacancies can impact the overall risk profile of shopping centres, a finding that would have added significance in secondary locations.

Practical implications

The methodology could be applied by investors to give an overall view of the default risk of a multi‐let investment and allow comparison between shopping centres facilitating dynamic analysis on an ongoing basis.

Originality/value

The explicit contribution of risk factors, such as covenant strength, to the initial yield does not have a major coverage in the literature. This analysis has the potential to identify at an early stage areas of potential default and thus enhance the decision‐making process.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

Joseph T.L. Ooi and Loo‐Lee Sim

This paper aims to address two questions related to the magnetism or drawing power of suburban malls: first, does physical size matter, and second, what is the…

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3434

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address two questions related to the magnetism or drawing power of suburban malls: first, does physical size matter, and second, what is the externalities effect of housing a Cineplex within a shopping center?

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out through an extensive survey covering 1,283 shoppers in nine selected suburban shopping centers in Singapore. The effects of physical size and the presence of Cineplex on the magnetism on the selected suburban shopping centers are evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. Their effect on shopping duration and expenditure pattern is also empirically tested using a recursive simultaneous equations model.

Findings

The survey results affirm that both physical size and the presence of a Cineplex enhance the magnetism of suburban shopping centers. A larger shopping center can facilitate a greater variety of shops and create a more pleasant environment for the shoppers, thus enticing shoppers to visit and stay longer. Cinema patrons prefer to watch movies at Cineplex located in shopping centers. Controlling for the endogenous relationship between duration of visit and amount spent in the shopping center, the regression results show that, while physical size and Cineplex have a positive effect on the duration of visit, they do not necessarily have a direct effect on the amount spent by the patrons in the shopping center.

Originality/value

One of the main challenges for mall owners and managers located outside the traditional shopping belt is how to attract shoppers to patronize their malls. While the impact of shopping center size on retail rents and center attractiveness has been addressed in the literature, this paper adds some new insights into the field. The focus on whether the presence of a cinema complex within a shopping center affects its magnetism or not is novel.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Muhammad Faishal Ibrahim

Transport mode attributes have often been neglected in the retailing and transportation literature in retail outlets choice studies. Most of the retailing and…

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1982

Abstract

Transport mode attributes have often been neglected in the retailing and transportation literature in retail outlets choice studies. Most of the retailing and transportation literature has only adopted the traditional measures of deterrence, namely, travel time, distance and/or travel cost. Similar phenomena exist in real estate research, particularly in real estate market analysis and valuation. However, a few studies have shown that other attributes of the travel component, such as comfort, reliability of transport mode, etc., are significant in affecting shopping centres’ patronage. With the heightening of issues such as sustainable development and environmental pollution, many governments are gearing to provide greater choices and better quality public transport modes to shopping centres. Therefore, with more transport options, shoppers are likely to consider the characteristics of each transport option in greater detail in their choice of shopping centres. Therefore, in view of this widespread phenomenon, it is timely to provide greater understanding of the travel components in shopping trips. In the light of the above development, this paper aims to disaggregate the travel components in shopping centre choice. By way of principal component analysis, it presents the salient dimensions of transport attributes and shopping centre characteristics in shopping centre choice. Using the weighted factor rating, it found that, in addition to the shopping centre attributes, as well as the conventional measures of travel components, shoppers consider other travel factors in their choice of shopping centres. This in turn has implications on valuation practices.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Elisabetta Savelli, Marco Cioppi and Federica Tombari

The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether and how the website atmosphere (WA) of a shopping centre affects the behavioural loyalty of customers towards physical…

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1449

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether and how the website atmosphere (WA) of a shopping centre affects the behavioural loyalty of customers towards physical shopping centres. A mediating variable – individual shopper motivation – is considered in assessing this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses were tested using a partial least squares – path modelling approach to structural equation modelling on a sample population of 438 individuals.

Findings

Online atmospherics, particularly concerning the social/relational attributes of the WA, positively affect the behavioural loyalty of customers towards physical shopping centres. Moreover, recreational motivations strengthen this relationship more than functional motivations do.

Research limitations/implications

The sample investigated is limited with regard to diversity, age and gender. Future research can use a more representative sample to improve the findings’ relevance and generalisation. Also the development of a scale of measures for the shopping centre customers’ motivations is worthy of interest in future studies.

Practical implications

Recognising the importance of web atmospherics’ significant impact on customer loyalty should encourage shopping centre managers to develop effective website and online communication programmes.

Originality/value

Extant studies have paid little attention to the relationship between WA and customer loyalty to the physical shopping centre. This study investigates this relationship, combining the online and offline perspective into an overall research approach. Moreover, it contributes to the research on website management in the shopping centre context by providing a comprehensive analysis of WA, whereas previous studies have mainly focussed on one or a few atmospherics.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Gary L. Hunter

The purpose of this paper is to identify variables that intervene in the relationship between shopping center image and frequency of visits to that shopping center

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4967

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify variables that intervene in the relationship between shopping center image and frequency of visits to that shopping center. Variables investigated as intervening are desires, intentions, and positive anticipated emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

The method uses a two wave mail survey. One wave gathers intentions and variables antecedent to intentions while a second wave gathers behavioral data.

Findings

Findings suggest that desire (i.e. motivation), intention, and positive anticipated emotions intervene between shopping center image and frequency of shopping center visits. Positive anticipated emotions are not emotions felt while shopping but are the expected emotional consequences of achieving a goal, in this case visiting a shopping center. Visiting a shopping center might be a goal in itself or it could be the means to goal attainment (e.g. shopping to get a product).

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study is that results are aggregated across types of shopping centers and across respondent classifications.

Practical implications

Results provide evidence that desire, intention, and positive anticipated emotions intervene between shopping center image and frequency of visits to the shopping center. Implications for shopping center managers are guidance for allocating resources towards increasing desire, intention, and positive anticipated emotions.

Originality/value

The value of this study is investigation of the process by which shopping center image impacts the frequency of visits to a shopping center. Focusing on this process should allow shopping center managers to more efficiently allocate resources. The value of this study is offering resource allocation guidance to shopping center managers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

Gerard Prendergast, Norman Marr and Brent Jarratt

Builds on an article, which looked at tenant‐manager relationships in shopping centres, published by the authors in IJRDM, Vol. 24 No. 9. Using data from the same research…

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2561

Abstract

Builds on an article, which looked at tenant‐manager relationships in shopping centres, published by the authors in IJRDM, Vol. 24 No. 9. Using data from the same research project, this article compares the views of shopping centre and non‐shopping centre retailers. Despite many countries having seen a substantial growth in the number of shopping centres, not all retailers choose to locate within a shopping centre, and some retailers actively oppose shopping centres. A survey of clothing retailers in New Zealand showed that retailers in centres tended to have higher sales turnover than those outside centres. Retailers inside centres believed much more strongly that there are opportunities in locating within a centre. The main reasons for retailers not locating in centres were that the levels of rent are too high and the trading hours are too long.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Malcolm H. Kirkup and Mohammed Rafiq

Examines the marketing task facing managed shopping centres in the UK. The industry has generally been reluctant to fully embrace the marketing concept and this needs to…

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5678

Abstract

Examines the marketing task facing managed shopping centres in the UK. The industry has generally been reluctant to fully embrace the marketing concept and this needs to change as competition increases. Defines the marketing task and identifies considerable challenges in the UK context. The marketing mix is examined, utilising a new framework (which is proposed as a useful analytical and management tool) and constraints are discussed which arise from both the nature of the shopping centre service itself and traditional industry practices. Problems with resourcing, information, knowledge and attitudes at the coal‐face of active centre marketing are found to be working against effective marketing practice. Draws on literature and a series of exploratory interviews with managers involved in shopping centre management and marketing.

Details

Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2538

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Matthew Bailey

This paper aims to join a growing movement in marketing history to include the voices of consumers in historical research on retail environments. It aims to show that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to join a growing movement in marketing history to include the voices of consumers in historical research on retail environments. It aims to show that consumer perspectives offer new insights to the emergence and reception of large-scale, pre-planned shopping centers in Australia during the 1960s, and allow one to write a history of this retail form from below, in contrast to the top-down approach that is characteristic of the broader literature on shopping mall development.

Design/methodology/approach

Written testimonies by consumers were gathered using a qualitative online questionnaire. The methodology is related to oral history, in that it seeks to capture the subjective experiences of participants, has the capacity to create new archives, to fill or explain gaps in existing repositories and provide a voice to those frequently lost to the historical record.

Findings

The written testimonies gathered for this project provide an important contribution to the understanding of shopping centers in Australia and, particularly Sydney, during the 1960s, the ways that they were envisaged and used and insights into their reception and success.

Research limitations/implications

As with oral history, written testimony has limitations as a methodology due to its reliance on memory, requiring both sophisticated and cautious readings of the data.

Originality/value

The methodology used in this paper is unique in this context and provides new understandings of Australian retail property development. For current marketers, the historically constituted relationship between people and place offers potential for community targeted promotional campaigns.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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