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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Mubarak A.K. and Tide P.S.

The purpose of this paper is to design a double parabolic nozzle and to compare the performance with conventional nozzle designs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design a double parabolic nozzle and to compare the performance with conventional nozzle designs.

Design/methodology/approach

The throat diameter and divergent length for Conical, Bell and Double Parabolic nozzles were kept same for the sake of comparison. The double parabolic nozzle has been designed in such a way that the maximum slope of the divergent curve is taken as one-third of the Prandtl Meyer (PM) angle. The studies were carried out at Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPR) of 5 and also at design conditions (NPR = 3.7). Experimental measurements were carried out for all the three nozzle configurations and the performance parameters compared. Numerical simulations were also carried out in a two-dimensional computational domain incorporating density-based solver with RANS equations and SST k-ω turbulence model.

Findings

The numerical predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the measured experimental values. An enhancement in thrust was observed for double parabolic nozzle when compared with that of conical and bell nozzles.

Research limitations/implications

Even though the present numerical simulations were capable of predicting shock cell parameters reasonably well, shock oscillations were not captured.

Practical implications

The double parabolic nozzle design has enormous practical importance as a small increase in thrust can result in a significant gain in pay load.

Social implications

The thrust developed by the double parabolic nozzle is seen to be on the higher side than that of conventional nozzles with better fuel economy.

Originality/value

The overall performance of the double parabolic nozzle is better than conical and bell nozzles for the same throat diameter and length.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

S. Manigandan and Vijayaraja K.

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of mixing promotion and screech frequency of controlled elliptical supersonic jet.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of mixing promotion and screech frequency of controlled elliptical supersonic jet.

Design/methodology/approach

Flow field characteristics of low-aspect-ratio elliptical jets are examined at over-expanded, under-expanded and correctly expanded conditions. The tabs are placed at elliptical jet exit along the major and minor axes.

Findings

The results show that the mixing done by the minor axis is superior to the tabs along major axis. At all pressure ratios, the content of jet noise and the frequency are high for the tabs along the major axis because of increase in the amplitude of screech frequency. Further the tabs along minor axis show a dominance of large-scale vertical structures. In under-expanded conditions, the shock cell shows the rapid change because of the presence of tabs. The tabs along minor axis are making the shock weaker, hence no evidence of axis switching.

Practical implications

To achieve the greater performance of jet, the authors need to reduce the potential core length of the issuing jet. This can be achieved by implementing different types of tabs at the exit of the nozzle.

Originality/value

The present paper represents the flow of controlled jet using inverted triangular tabs. By achieving the controlled jet flow, the performance of propulsion systems can be improved. This can be used in systems such as combustion chamber, missile’s noise reduction and thrust vector control.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Mica Grujicic, Ramin Yavari, Jennifer Snipes, S. Ramaswami and Roshdy Barsoum

The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanical response of polyurea, soda-lime glass (glass, for short), polyurea/glass/polyurea and glass/polyurea/glass sandwich…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanical response of polyurea, soda-lime glass (glass, for short), polyurea/glass/polyurea and glass/polyurea/glass sandwich structures under dynamic-loading conditions involving propagation of planar longitudinal shockwaves.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem of shockwave generation, propagation and interaction with material boundaries is investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. The results obtained are used to construct basic shock Hugoniot relationships associated with the propagation of shockwaves through a homogeneous material (polyurea or glass, in the present case). The fidelity of these relations is established by comparing them with their experimental counterparts, and the observed differences are rationalized in terms of the microstructural changes experienced by the shockwave-swept material. The relationships are subsequently used to predict the outcome of the interactions of shockwaves with polyurea/glass or glass/polyurea material boundaries. Molecular-level simulations are next used to directly analyze the same shockwave/material-boundary interactions.

Findings

The molecular-level simulations suggested, and the subsequent detailed microstructural analyses confirmed, the formation of topologically altered interfacial regions, i.e. polyurea/glass and glass/polyurea interphases.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is a first attempt to analyze, using molecular-level simulation methods, the interaction of shockwaves with material boundaries.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

MICHAEL J. BOCKELIE and PETER R. EISEMAN

An adaptive grid solution method is described for computing the time accurate solution of an unsteady flow problem. The solution method consists of three parts: a grid…

Abstract

An adaptive grid solution method is described for computing the time accurate solution of an unsteady flow problem. The solution method consists of three parts: a grid point redistribution method; an unsteady Euler equation solver; and a temporal coupling routine that links the dynamic grid to the flow solver. The grid movement technique is a direct curve by curve method containing grid controls that generate a smooth grid that resolves the severe solution gradients and the sharp transitions in the solution gradients. By design, the temporal coupling procedure provides a grid that does not lag the solution in time. The adaptive solution method is tested by computing the unsteady inviscid solutions for a one‐dimensional shock tube and a two‐dimensional shock vortex interaction. Quantitative comparisons are made between the adaptive solutions, theoretical solutions and numerical solutions computed on stationary grids. Test results demonstrate the good temporal tracking of the solution by the adaptive grid, and the ability of the adaptive method to capture an unsteady solution of comparable accuracy to that computed on a stationary grid containing significantly more grid points than used in the adaptive grid.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 1997

Carlos F. Daganzo

Abstract

Details

Fundamentals of Transportation and Traffic Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-042785-0

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

S. Askari, M.H. Shojaeefard and K. Goudarzi

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a comprehensive study of compressible flow over double wedge and biconvex airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a comprehensive study of compressible flow over double wedge and biconvex airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and three analytical models including shock and expansion wave theory, Busemann's second‐order linearized approximation and characteristic method (CHM).

Design/methodology/approach

Flow over double‐wedge and biconvex airfoils was investigated by the CFD technique using the Spalart‐Allmaras turbulence model for computation of the Reynolds stresses. Flow was considered compressible, two dimensional and steady. The no slip condition was applied at walls and the Sutherland law was used to calculate molecular viscosity as a function of static temperature. First‐order upwind discretization scheme was used for the convection terms. Finite‐volume method was used for the entire solution domain meshed by quadratic computational cells. Busemann's theory, shock and expansion wave technique and CHM were the analytical methods used in this work.

Findings

Static pressure, static temperature and aerodynamic coefficients of the airfoils were calculated at various angles of attack. In addition, aerodynamic coefficients of the double‐wedge airfoil were obtained at various free stream Mach numbers and thickness ratios of the airfoil. Static pressure and aerodynamic coefficients obtained from the analytical and numerical methods were in excellent agreement with average error of 1.62 percent. Variation of the static pressure normal to the walls was negligible in the numerical simulation as well as the analytical solutions. Analytical static temperature far from the walls was consistent with the numerical values with average error of 3.40 percent. However, it was not comparable to the numerical temperature at the solid walls. Therefore, analytical solutions give accurate prediction of the static pressure and the aerodynamic coefficients, however, for the static temperature; they are only reliable far from the solid surfaces. Accuracy of the analytical aerodynamic coefficients is because of accurate prediction of the static pressure which is not considerably influenced by the boundary layer. Discrepancies between analytical and numerical temperatures near the walls are because of dependency of temperature on the boundary layer and viscous heating. Low‐speed flow near walls causes transformation of the kinetic energy of the free stream into enthalpy that leads to high temperature on the solid walls; which is neglected in the analytical solutions.

Originality/value

This paper is useful for researchers in the area of external compressible flows. This work is original.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

V. Wheatley, H.S. Chiu, P.A. Jacobs, M.N. Macrossan, D.J. Mee and R.G. Morgan

This paper describes a free‐piston driven expansion tube and its instrumentation. The facility is used to generate rarefied flows at speeds of approximately 10 km/s…

Abstract

This paper describes a free‐piston driven expansion tube and its instrumentation. The facility is used to generate rarefied flows at speeds of approximately 10 km/s. Although the flow in the tube itself is in the continuum regime, rarefied flow conditions are achieved by allowing the test gas to further expand as a free jet into the facility's test section. The test flow is surveyed to provide bar‐gauge pressure measurements. Numerical simulation is then used to describe more fully the test flow properties. The flows produced are suitable for the aerodynamic testing of small models at superorbital speeds and should provide data that are suitable for the calibration of Direct Simulation Monte‐Carlo codes.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

George Zografakis and George Barakos

This paper aims to explore the potential of transition prediction methods for modelling transitional shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The study is fuelled by the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the potential of transition prediction methods for modelling transitional shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The study is fuelled by the strong interest of researchers and airframe manufacturers in reducing the drag of vehicles flying at transonic speeds. The principle of drag reduction via flow laminarity is valid, provided there is no need for the flow to sustain large pressure gradients or shocks. This is true, as laminar boundary layers are less resistant to flow separation.

Design/methodology/approach

It is, therefore, worthwhile to assess the performance of CFD methods in modelling laminar boundary layers that can be tripped to turbulent just before an interaction with a shock. In this work, the CFD solver of Liverpool University is used. The method is strongly implicit, and, for this reason, the implementation of intermittency-based models requires special attention. The Navier–Stokes equations, the transport equations of the kinetic energy of turbulence and the turbulent frequency are inverted at the same time as the transport equations for the flow intermittency and the momentum thickness Reynolds number.

Findings

The result is stable and robust convergence even for complex three-dimensional flow cases. The method is demonstrated for the flow around the V2C section of the TFAST EU, F7 project. The results suggest that the intermittency-based model captures the fundamental physics of the interaction, but verification and validation are needed to ensure that accurate results can be obtained. For this reason, comparisons with the TFAST experiments is put forward as a means of establishing confidence in the transition prediction tools used for shock/boundary layer interaction simulation.

Research limitations/implications

At the moment, experimental data for transonic transitional buffet are not yet available, although this will change in the near future.

Practical implications

The required CPU time is neither insignificant not prohibitive for routine computations.

Social implications

Reducing aircraft drag without compromising on stall characteristics will result in lower fuel consumption and contribute to a greener and more economic flight for passengers.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that transitional buffet has been addressed.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 88 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

M. Grujicic, B. d'Entremont, B. Pandurangan, A. Grujicic, M. LaBerge, J. Runt, J. Tarter and G. Dillon

Blast‐induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a signature injury of the current military conflicts. Among the different types of TBI, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) plays an…

Abstract

Purpose

Blast‐induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a signature injury of the current military conflicts. Among the different types of TBI, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) plays an important role since it can lead to devastating effects in the inflicted military personnel. To better understand the potential causes associated with DAI, this paper aims to investigate a transient non‐linear dynamics finite element simulation of the response of the brain white matter to shock loading.

Design/methodology/approach

Brain white matter is considered to be a heterogeneous material consisting of fiber‐like axons and a structure‐less extracellular matrix (ECM). The brain white matter microstructure in the investigated corpus callosum region of the brain is idealized using a regular hexagonal arrangement of aligned equal‐size axons. Deviatoric stress response of the axon and the ECM is modeled using a linear isotropic viscoelastic formulation while the hydrostatic stress response is modeled using a shock‐type equation of state. To account for the stochastic character of the brain white matter microstructure and shock loading, a parametric study is carried out involving a factorial variation of the key microstructural and waveform parameters.

Findings

The results obtained show that the extent of axon undulations and the strength of axon/ECM bonding profoundly affect the spatial distribution and magnitude of the axonal axial normal and shear stresses (the stresses which can cause diffuse axonal injury).

Originality/value

The present approach enables a more accurate determination of the mechanical behavior of brain white matter when subjected to a shock.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Kaili Yao, Dongyang Chu, Ting Li, Zhanli Liu, Bao-Hua Guo, Jun Xu and Zhuo Zhuang

The purpose of this paper is to calculate the Hugoniot relations of polyurea; also to investigate the atomic-scale energy change, the related chain conformation evolution…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to calculate the Hugoniot relations of polyurea; also to investigate the atomic-scale energy change, the related chain conformation evolution and the hydrogen bond dissociation of polyurea under high-speed shock.

Design/methodology/approach

The atomic-scale simulations are achieved by molecular dynamics (MD). Both non-equilibrium MD and multi-scale shock technique are used to simulate the high-speed shock. The energy dissipation is theoretically derived by the thermodynamic and the Hugoniot relations. The distributions of bond length, angle and dihedral angle are used to characterize the chain conformation evolution. The hydrogen bonds are determined by a geometrical criterion.

Findings

The Hugoniot relations calculated are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is found that under the same impact pressure, polyurea with lower hard segment content has higher energy dissipation during the shock-release process. The primary energy dissipation way is the heat dissipation caused by the increase of kinetic energy. Unlike tensile simulation, the molecular potential increment is mainly divided into the increments of the bond energy, angle energy and dihedral angle energy under shock loading and is mostly stored in the soft segments. The hydrogen bond potential increment only accounts for about 1% of the internal energy increment under high-speed shock.

Originality/value

The simulation results are meaningful for understanding and evaluating the energy dissipation mechanism of polyurea under shock loading, and could provide a reference for material design.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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