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Whitbread plc′s cellar service function has overcome the obstacleswhich many organisations feel that the NVQ system presents. Criticismsabout ″bureaucracy″ are often, and…
Whitbread plc′s cellar service function has overcome the obstacles which many organisations feel that the NVQ system presents. Criticisms about ″bureaucracy″ are often, and perhaps justifiably, made because employers are only shown the administrative side of the NVQ system. For large organisations which employ people in many different roles, the thought of dealing with perhaps 20 different industry lead bodies to implement 20 different quality assurance systems is understandably daunting. However, it is possible to have one common system throughout the organisation, regardless of the number of occupational roles involved. It is possible to contextualise and operationalise the system to meet an organisation′s requirements
Accreditation of prior learning (APL) is the formal assessment andcertification of employees′ and job seekers′ existing skills andknowledge in accordance with nationally…
Accreditation of prior learning (APL) is the formal assessment and certification of employees′ and job seekers′ existing skills and knowledge in accordance with nationally recognised standards of occupational competence. The potential role of APL in making maximum effective use of existing national resources and in encouraging adults to acquire new skills is assessed. The relevance of APL in closing the “skills gap” and in tapping the adult labour market is examined. The UK Government′s APL initiatives are reviewed including the implementation of two, two‐year programmes. Colleges, employers and organisations in the public and private sectors are all interested in taking APL further but the real costs are still to be examined, an institutional model is yet to be established and the required infrastructure needs to be put in place nationally.
This article describes research into the understanding and use of the system of National Vocational Qualifications by middle managers in local authority social services…
This article describes research into the understanding and use of the system of National Vocational Qualifications by middle managers in local authority social services departments. It highlights the barriers that must be overcome if this system is to make a positive impact on the quality of care.
A case which because of its far‐reaching implications attracted considerable interest (see report on p. 91) was recently heard at Highgate. It was alleged that ice lollies were “unfit for human consumption” because of the temperature at which they were sold. Because the lollies were too cold, one stuck to a boy's lips and chin and another to a boy's tongue, peeling off skin when they were removed. The prosecution's case was that on the evidence, the vendors should be convicted of selling food unfit for human consumption, but the magistrates did not accept this contention and dismissed the case. The mishap was an unfortunate one, and Counsel's submissions for the defence notwith‐standing, it is difficult to see how the case could have been decided otherwise. There was never any suggestion of inferior ingredients being used in the manufacture of the lollies.
A review of the approach adopted by the Management CharterInitiative (MCI) towards the use of management competences, drawing oncontemporary research and journal articles…
A review of the approach adopted by the Management Charter Initiative (MCI) towards the use of management competences, drawing on contemporary research and journal articles, is made. In addition, use is made of insights and experience gained through involvement in the MCI Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) pilot project conducted at Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education. Three major assumptions associated with the MCI competence approach are evaluated and a specific facet of the Cheltenham and Gloucester College APL experience, that of high delegate wastage, is examined. An expectancy model of motivation is used along with an action feedback model to illustrate and explain some of the potential reasons for a high drop‐out rate. The model affords an opportunity to provide a rationale to underpin needed action on the part of the major actors within the APL management competence approach. In conclusion, a number of summary propositions predicated by the review are given.
This paper explores the advertising strategy of crockery importers and dealers in relationship to their origins and backgrounds. This is a departure from earlier…
This paper explores the advertising strategy of crockery importers and dealers in relationship to their origins and backgrounds. This is a departure from earlier ceramic-history literature which tended to focus on the Staffordshire producers, with limited awareness on how the identity of importers and dealers influenced what products were sold, and their individual approaches to marketing.
Within a context of historical marketing research, this paper analyses newspaper advertising and commentary. It combines an examination of marketing practices with a wider consideration of the cultural identities of ceramic importers and dealers. The digitalization of historical records, combined with sophisticated search engines, makes it more feasible to examine a broader range of sources. Thus, modern research methods can enhance our understanding of production and demand and reveal how marketing strategy was diverse.
Awareness on how advertising was influenced by the backgrounds and socio-political views of importers and dealers demonstrates ways in which Anglo-American ceramic trade could be far more market-led. More significantly, marketing approaches were not necessarily responding to American demand, but rather that importers could engage in commissioning goods which reflected their own views on politics, religion or slavery.
Examining the advertising of importers demonstrates the complex relationship between production and ceramic demand. This paper opens up debates as to how far the advertising of other merchandise in the USA shows evidence of taking a more individual approach by the 19th century.
For students who are blind or visually impaired, technology enables greater access to the educational curriculum, immediate and independent access to information, and full…
For students who are blind or visually impaired, technology enables greater access to the educational curriculum, immediate and independent access to information, and full participation in community and citizenship. This chapter reviews research on technology use by students with visual impairments, and highlights effective practices, promising developments, and ongoing challenges. The authors discuss the implications of these advancements on policy, instruction, professional development, and future research.
The aim of this paper is to explore the issues involved in developing and applying performance management approaches within a large UK public sector department using a…
The aim of this paper is to explore the issues involved in developing and applying performance management approaches within a large UK public sector department using a multiple stakeholder perspective and an accompanying theoretical framework.
An initial short questionnaire was used to determine perceptions about the implementation and effectiveness of the new performance management system across the organisation. In total, 700 questionnaires were distributed. Running concurrently with an ethnographic approach, and informed by the questionnaire responses, was a series of semi‐structured interviews and focus groups.
Staff at all levels had an understanding of the new system and perceived it as being beneficial. However, there were concerns that the approach was not continuously managed throughout the year and was in danger of becoming an annual event, rather than an ongoing process. Furthermore, the change process seemed to have advanced without corresponding changes to appraisal and reward and recognition systems. Thus, the business objectives were not aligned with motivating factors within the organisation.
Additional research to test the validity and usefulness of the theoretical model, as discussed in this paper, would be beneficial.
The strategic integration of the stakeholder performance measures and scorecards was found to be essential to producing an overall stakeholder‐driven strategy within the case study organisation.
This paper discusses in detail the approach adopted and the progress made by one large UK public sector organisation, as it attempts to develop better relationships with all of its stakeholders and hence improve its performance. This paper provides a concerted attempt to link theory with practice.
Training, particularly in the form of comprehensive professional development, continues to be a need for paraeducators (also known as teacher assistants). Training needs…
Training, particularly in the form of comprehensive professional development, continues to be a need for paraeducators (also known as teacher assistants). Training needs begin with an initial set of knowledge and skills and is built based upon the paraeducator’s role with individual students and the educational settings. Standards or guidance documents are available from a few individual states within the United States, higher education systems, and professional organizations that serve individuals with exceptional needs and agencies. An international professional organization, Council for Exceptional Children [CEC] (2011), identified a common skill set that reinforces standards for defining curricula when providing training to paraeducators. Key to their ongoing professional development is the on-the-job coaching by the education professional (teacher), to support the application of skills into the inclusive setting. Various forms of professional development are available including online trainings in addition to face-to-face.