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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Shintaro Okazaki, Charles R. Taylor, Patrick Vargas and Jörg Henseler

An unconscious concern regarding one’s inevitable death, known as mortality salience, may affect consumers’ brand choices in the aftermath of disastrous events, such as…

Abstract

Purpose

An unconscious concern regarding one’s inevitable death, known as mortality salience, may affect consumers’ brand choices in the aftermath of disastrous events, such as earthquakes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-identification with global consumer culture (IDGCC) in global brand purchase intention in response to disasters that heighten mortality salience. The roles of materialism, consumer ethnocentrism, cosmopolitanism and hope in this this process are also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

An online experiment was conducted with a large sample of Japanese consumers. Japan was selected because it had recently suffered from a series of devastating earthquakes. Participants’ mortality salience was primed with an earthquake scenario. All measures were adapted from prior research. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses and validate the model.

Findings

The results reveal that IDGCC is a direct predictor of global brand purchase intention when mortality salience is high. It appears that identifying with global consumer culture and buying global brands enhances self-esteem and reduces anxiety for those with high IDGCC. As predicted, materialism and cosmopolitanism positively influence IDGCC, whereas consumer ethnocentrism does not impede IDGCC. Hope directly and positively affects global brand purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

Some consumers who experience traumatic events may resist mortality salience and experience a heightened sense of global citizenship. Meanwhile, those with lower IDGCC may revert to in-group favoritism, whereas those with higher IDGCC tend to purchase global brands. Using a scenario to simulate the mental state evoked by a disaster limits generalizability.

Practical implications

The findings illuminate how firms should modify their international marketing strategies in the face of traumatic global events when targeting consumers with high vs low IDGCC in terms of framing messages about global brands. Additionally, using global brands that emphasize an optimistic outlook may help global marketers capture attention from consumers high in IDGCC.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to address traumatic events and hope, relating these concepts to IDGCC and global brand purchase intention in an international marketing context.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2020

Shintaro Okazaki, Kirk Plangger, Thomas Roulet and Héctor D. Menéndez

With the popularity of social media platforms, firms have now tangible means not only to reach out to their stakeholders, but also to closely monitor those interactions…

Abstract

Purpose

With the popularity of social media platforms, firms have now tangible means not only to reach out to their stakeholders, but also to closely monitor those interactions. Yet, there are limited methodological advances on how to measure a firm’s stakeholder networks, and the level of engagement firms have with these networks. Drawn upon the customer engagement and stakeholder theory literature, this study aims to propose an approach to calculate a firm’s stakeholder network engagement (SNE) index.

Design/methodology/approach

After deriving the SNE index formula mathematically, this study illustrates how the SNE index functions using eight firms’ online corporate social responsibility (CSR) networks across four diverse industries.

Findings

This study proposes and illustrates a new approach of capturing the SNE in a stakeholder network for use by academic and practical researchers.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers can use the SNE index to assess engagement in stakeholder networks in various contexts.

Practical implications

Managers can use the SNE index to assess, benchmark and improve the nature and quality of their CSR strategies to derive greater return on their CSR investments.

Originality/value

Building on the stakeholder, communication and network analysis literatures, this study conceptualises SNE in four theoretical dimensions, namely, diffusion, accessibility, interactivity and influence. Then, an index that measures SNE is mathematically derived and empirically illustrated.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Shintaro Okazaki and Javier Alonso Rivas

Despite the growing trend toward the interactive medium, there would appear to be a lack of comprehensive research methodology for evaluating the degree of standardisation…

Abstract

Despite the growing trend toward the interactive medium, there would appear to be a lack of comprehensive research methodology for evaluating the degree of standardisation in multinational corporations’ (MNCs’) online communication strategies across differing cultures. The objective of this exploratory study is to construct a research framework for cross‐cultural comparison of corporate Web pages, applying traditional advertising content study techniques. A series of pre‐tests were conducted to examine three explanatory variables, i.e. information content, cultural values and creative strategies on Japanese MNCs’ product‐based home pages in Japan, Spain and the USA. The results revealed that Japanese firms tended to localise their online communication strategies in their target markets. In closing, future research directions are discussed and content analysis research designs are summarised.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Shintaro Okazaki and Barbara Mueller

Abstract

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Shintaro Okazaki and Barbara Mueller

The purpose of this paper is to examine recent patterns and developments in the literature on cross‐cultural advertising research.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine recent patterns and developments in the literature on cross‐cultural advertising research.

Design/methodology/approach

Citation analysis was performed for cross‐cultural advertising articles published in major marketing and business journals from 1995 to 2006.

Findings

Cultural values were the most studied topic area in cross‐cultural advertising research. Content analysis was the most widely employed methodology, followed by surveys. North America and the original European Union (EU) member states were the most frequently investigated, whereas there appears to exist a paucity of research in newer EU countries, and in Latin American, Middle Eastern, and African markets.

Originality/value

Based on findings from the citation analysis, the authors outline future directions for the advancement of cross‐cultural advertising research in theoretical foundations, methodological issues, and countries to be explored.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Shintaro Okazaki and Radoslav Skapa

The purpose of this study is to examine American multinational corporations' (MNC's) web site standardization in Poland and the Czech Republic. The theoretical framework…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine American multinational corporations' (MNC's) web site standardization in Poland and the Czech Republic. The theoretical framework was adopted from global marketing strategy (GMS) theory, which focuses on three primary strategies: strategy to create a uniform brand image; strategy to appeal to cross‐border segments; and strategy to express culturally bound meaning. To this end, MNCs are posited to pursue the standardization of corporate visual components and web site functions, and the localization of textual information.

Design/methodology/approach

Using web site content analysis techniques, the similarity between the home (US) and host (Polish or Czech) sites is evaluated, and the existence of web site functions in each site is coded. As a secondary reference point, German sites are also examined. Two native coders per country are employed, and the reliability scores are deemed to be satisfactory. Multivariate analyses, including a multiple discriminant analysis and a multiple correspondence analysis, were applied to test the principal thesis of the study.

Findings

The findings suggest that American MNCs tend to apply a high level of visual components in Polish and Czech sites. However, the level of standardization in textual messages is notably low. Specifically, it appears that the textual information in Polish sites is highly localized – despite their uniform visuals, in the same manner as German sites. In addition, MNCs use web site functions in Polish sites to a similar extent to their home US sites, but to a much lesser extent in Czech sites.

Originality/value

The findings of this study make an important contribution to the literature, electronic commerce research in this region is extremely scarce. In addition, the theoretical framework, based on GMS theory, appears to be a useful stepping‐stone in this area. Along with recent findings in international advertising standardization, this study also provides unique evidence that European integration affects firms' marketing standardization strategy, not only offline, but also in the online marketing environment.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Fernando Fastoso and Jeryl Whitelock

This paper's objectives are firstly to systematically analyse patterns of research in international advertising standardisation (IAS) conducted among managers and secondly…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper's objectives are firstly to systematically analyse patterns of research in international advertising standardisation (IAS) conducted among managers and secondly to suggest fruitful paths for future research in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis of academic papers published in major marketing, advertising and international business journals.

Findings

Results show that overall future research would benefit from a unified definition of and measurement procedures for advertising standardisation as only these can ensure the advancement of knowledge in the field. Additionally, more research is needed in order to further explore process issues in advertising standardisation, especially a newly proposed perspective related to the implementation process of the standardisation decision. Finally, an interesting avenue for future research relates to the study of the subjectivity involved in the standardisation decision.

Research limitations/implications

As with all literature reviews, this paper is limited to analysing works in a selection of the top academic journals in the field. However, a careful choice of the most important journals has been made, providing a good reflection of knowledge in the area.

Originality/value

This paper appears to be the first literature review focusing on manager studies in the field of IAS.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Ali M. Kanso and Richard Alan Nelson

Despite the increasing volume of scholarly work in international advertising, media selection has received very little attention. This study seeks to address three…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the increasing volume of scholarly work in international advertising, media selection has received very little attention. This study seeks to address three fundamental issues in media selection for non‐domestic markets: the relative importance of cultural factors, the relationships between organization structure, and the relative weight that executives place on cultural and non‐cultural factors in their media selection, and the relationships between cultural orientations of advertising executives and their perceptions of specific non‐domestic factors of media selection.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail survey of executives for US consumer durable manufacturers operating internationally was conducted. The sample involved managers responsible for media selection in 106 firms listed in the Fortune directory of the 500 largest industrial multinational corporations (MNCs). Three waves of the same questionnaire were sent. Of the selected executives, 84 returned the questionnaire, making the response rate 79.25 percent.

Findings

The findings reveal that advertising executives of US MNCs place more importance on general environmental factors (type of product, target market, budget size, cost efficiency, reach and frequency, and competition) than on specific non‐ domestic factors (media availability, language diversity, legal constraints, level of economy, literacy and cultural considerations). Furthermore, managers in centralized decision firms and managers in decentralized decision firms do not differ significantly in their assessment of the relative importance of general and specific non‐domestic factors. However, non‐culturally oriented managers in contrast to their culturally oriented counterparts place greater importance on media availability when determining and executing media‐selection decisions. The surveyed executives also tend to be more involved in establishing objectives and setting budgets than in designing creative strategies and selecting specific media for international advertising campaigns.

Originality/value

Although localized and globalized marketing campaigns have steadily increased in the last 20 years, very few studies have examined MNC advertising managers' views about media selection. The research adds new insights to the understanding of this critical‐decision process.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Shintaro Okazaki and Jaime Romero

This study aims to identify distinct online media user segments on the basis of three media theories, namely media displacement theory, media complementarity theory and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify distinct online media user segments on the basis of three media theories, namely media displacement theory, media complementarity theory and media richness theory.

Design/methodology/approach

A large‐scale, mobile‐based web survey was conducted in Japan to assess behavioural variables (media time allocation, media richness perceptions, and media access motives) and demographics.

Findings

The latent class model reveals four distinct media user segments: dual media users (i.e. users of the internet on both the mobile and the PC); mobile internet users; PC internet users; and passive online users. Dual media users are likely to: spend more time on information searching; perceive greater levels of media richness in online media; and share common motives for accessing internet media via both mobile and PC. The findings are consistent with our theoretical expectations.

Research limitations and implications

Any exploratory clustering of consumers is by definition a snapshot that depends on time and place. Consequently the findings would very likely have been different if the underlying data had been sampled at another time or in different locations. Despite this limitation the findings corroborate some of the basic tenets of theories of media competition and complementarity.

Practical implications

The fact that almost a third of online media users access internet content via both mobile and PC suggests the increasing importance of cross‐media strategies.

Originality/value

This is a pioneering study that examines media competition and complementarity between the mobile internet and the PC internet.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Shintaro Okazaki and Charles R. Taylor

The primary aim of this article is to identify theoretical foundations that can be used in research on social media in the context of international advertising research…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary aim of this article is to identify theoretical foundations that can be used in research on social media in the context of international advertising research. An additional objective is to identify future research directions for theory building in this research area.

Design/methodology/approach

The article draws on the extant literature to identify three key theoretical foundations that can be used in research on advertising in media from an advertising perspective: networking capability; image transferability; and personal extensibility. For each of these perspectives, the current state of knowledge, theoretical challenges, and future research directions are summarized.

Findings

The three key theoretical perspectives (networking capability, image transferability, and personal extensibility) provide strong potential for better understanding the advantages and disadvantages of social media use for advertisers. They are also useful for identifying important research gaps that need to be filled in the future.

Research limitations/implications

Research on social media advertising in an international context is still in its infancy, and needs further attention. As few cross‐cultural studies have been conducted, the theories and their application will likely evolve in the future.

Originality/value

A review and conceptual framework pertaining to theoretical perspective used in social media research in an international advertising context has been practically non‐existent. Thus, this article is designed to serve as a solid starting point for future research endeavors.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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