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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Muhammad Zulfiqar, Shihua Chen and Muhammad Usman Yousaf

On the basis of behavioural agency theory and resource-based view, this study investigates the influence of family firm birth mode (i.e. indirect-established or…

Abstract

Purpose

On the basis of behavioural agency theory and resource-based view, this study investigates the influence of family firm birth mode (i.e. indirect-established or direct-established), family entering time on R&D investment and the moderating role of the family entering time on the relationship between birth mode and R&D investment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected 2,990 firm-year observations from family firms listed on A-share in China from 2008 to 2016 in the China Stock Market and Accounting Research database. They used pooled regression for data analysis and Tobit regression for robustness checks.

Findings

Indirect-established family firms show more inclined behaviour towards R&D investment than direct-established counterparts. Family entering time positively affects the R&D investment of family firms. Moreover, family entering time plays a significant moderating role in the relationship between family firm birth mode (i.e. indirect-established or direct-established) and R&D investment.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this work is a pioneering study that introduced the concept of family firm birth mode (i.e. indirect-established or direct-established) and family entering time. This work is novel because it differentiated family firms according to their birth modes, an approach which is a contribution to the existing literature of family firms. Moreover, the investigation of the moderating role of family entering time has also produced notable results that help understand the impact of family entering time on different types of family firms. The interpretation of outcomes according to behavioural agency theory also produced useful insights for future researchers as well as for policymakers.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2020

Shihua Chen, Yan Ye, Khalil Jebran and Muhammad Ansar Majeed

This study examines how Confucianism, as an informal system, alleviates manager–shareholder conflicts and thus decreases managerial behavior of keeping higher levels of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how Confucianism, as an informal system, alleviates manager–shareholder conflicts and thus decreases managerial behavior of keeping higher levels of cash reserves. This study also investigates whether formal governance mechanisms (state ownership and institutional investors) moderate the relationship between Confucianism and cash holdings.

Design/methodology/approach

This study opts a sample of Chinese listed firms over the period of 2004–2015. The geographical-proximity-based method was followed to measure Confucianism, which is the distance between a firm's registered address and the national Confucianism centers.

Findings

The results indicate that Confucianism adversely influences cash holdings. The authors’ findings illustrate that Confucian culture promotes ethical behavior, and therefore, firms in a strong Confucianism environment keep a lower level of cash reserves. The authors further document that the effect of Confucianism on cash holding is weaker for state-owned firms but stronger for firms with low institutional ownership.

Practical implications

The findings provide implications for policymakers, academicians, and corporations. The results suggest that culture can reduce cash holdings. Especially, in emerging markets, such as China, where formal mechanisms are relatively less effective, informal institutions can serve an alternative system for alleviating adverse effects of agency conflicts.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature in two ways. First, this study contributes to cash holdings literature by showing that culture (Confucianism) is negatively associated with cash holdings. Second, this study extends the incumbent literature that seeks to explore how Confucian culture influences corporate behavior. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first study that identifies that Confucianism is associated with cash holdings.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Gaurav Goyal, Harsh Vardhan Samalia and Piyush Verma

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of process simplification on the relationship between process integration and upstream supply chain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of process simplification on the relationship between process integration and upstream supply chain flexibility in Indian automotive organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The three-step mediation analysis was performed using SPSS macro PROCESS to assess the mediating role of process simplification on the relationship between process integration constructs: top management commitment and supplier relationship; and upstream supply chain flexibility.

Findings

The results indicate a complete mediation effect of process simplification between supplier relationship and upstream supply chain flexibility, while partial mediation effect is noticed between top management commitment and upstream supply chain flexibility.

Practical implications

For Indian automotive managers, the study suggests that for improving the upstream supply chain flexibility, organizations must have a strategy towards improving the simplification of supply chain processes by upgrading technology and providing training to their suppliers. This understanding will help the automotive managers to simplify their upstream supply chain processes for gaining competitive positioning and maximizing the organizational profit.

Originality/value

This study has considered the mediating role of process simplification (a relatively less studied variable) specifically in the context of its impact on upstream supply chain flexibility. Also, the presented study explores this role in the Indian automotive domain which further enhances its value for both practitioners and researchers alike.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Shihua Lu, Jianqi Zhu, Dongyan Gao, Weiwei Chen and Xinjun Li

This study aims to show the importance of natural convection of supercritical fluid in an inclined cavity. The heat transfer performance of natural convection can be improved.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to show the importance of natural convection of supercritical fluid in an inclined cavity. The heat transfer performance of natural convection can be improved.

Design/methodology/approach

A model of an inclined cavity was set up to simulate the natural convection of supercritical fluid. The influence of inclined angles (30 to approximately 90°) and pressures (8 to approximately 12 MPa) are analyzed. To ascertain flow and heat transfer of supercritical fluid natural convection, this paper conducts a numerical investigation using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which is proven to be precise and convenient.

Findings

The results show that the higher heat transfer performance can be obtained with an inclined angle of 30°. It is also presented that the heat transfer performance under pressure of 10 MPa is the best. In addition, common criterion number correlations of average Nusselt number are also fitted.

Originality/value

These study results can provide a theoretical reference for the study of heat transfer of supercritical fluid natural convection in engineering.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Min Wu and Xiangyu Su

Because of the complexity of relationship between surface tension and its decisive factors, such as temperature, concentration, electronic density, molar atomic volume and…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the complexity of relationship between surface tension and its decisive factors, such as temperature, concentration, electronic density, molar atomic volume and electro-negativity, a reasonable predicting model of surface tension of Sn-based solder alloys has not been developed yet. The paper aims to address the surface tension issue that has to be considered if the new lead free solder will be applied for electronics.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an artificial neural network (ANN) model with back-propagation (BP) algorithm, the surface tension for Sn-based binary solder alloys was simulated, and the comparison between the simulating results and data from experiments and literatures was analyzed as well. In addition, the relationship between surface tension and its decisive factors would be discussed based on the ANN and orthogonal design methods.

Findings

It is shown that the predicting model of surface tension of Sn-based solder alloys is constructed according to the BP–ANN theory, and the predicted value from the BP–ANN is in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The surface tension of Sn-based solders is determined by five factors, i.e. temperature, concentration, electronic density, molar atomic volume and electro-negativity. Among of the factors, molar atomic volume is major factor, and the order of degree of influence on surface tension is molar atomic volume > electro-negativity > electronic > density > concentration > temperature. Moreover, a simply reasonable equation is proposed to estimate the surface tension for Sn-based solders.

Originality/value

The five decisive factors of surface tension for Sn-based binary solder alloys have been analyzed theoretically, and a reasonable model of surface tension for Sn-based binary solder alloys is proposed as well. It is shown that ANN theory will be applied well to simulate the surface tension of Sn-based lead free solder.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Xu Zhao, Jingyang Wang, Mengyu Wang, Xuesong Li, Xia Gao and Chunlei Huang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the literature on the treatment of primary pupils and inspecting the role of environmental psychology, e-learning, learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the literature on the treatment of primary pupils and inspecting the role of environmental psychology, e-learning, learning style and school design on the behavior of students in elementary schools.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the components of the model. Experts with significant experiences in the field of students’ behavior revised the surveys. Data were collected from 400 teachers of the elementary schools in Iran. The SMART-PLS 3.2 and SPSS 22 software package were used in the field of questionnaires’ statistical analysis.

Findings

Findings confirmed the suggested model’s validity for elementary students’ behavior assessment. The consequences of this research illustrated the effect of environmental psychology on the behavior of elementary students. In addition, the authors were concluded that intention to e-learning has a significant role in developing the action and behavior of the elementary students. Moreover, the learning style has an affirmative and considerable impact on the behavior of elementary students. Finally, school design has an affirmative and significant effect on the manner of the elementary students.

Practical implications

The consequences of this research have provided some traces about the basic perspectives, which have to be in the center of attention of administrators. For instance, school design and learning style sound to be a decisive mechanism for improving action and learning behavior. In addition, educational leaders may use the findings to evaluate their school facilities and define where developments will have the most significant impact or planners may use the results to assist architects in the design and construction of new educational services.

Originality/value

This study builds a valuable contribution by focusing on pupil environmental psychology, e-learning, learning style and school design in elementary schools by enlightening the connection between them and students’ manner.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Tao Han, Bo Xiao, Xi-Sheng Zhan, Jie Wu and Hongling Gao

The purpose of this paper is to investigate time-optimal control problems for multiple unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems to achieve predefined flying shape.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate time-optimal control problems for multiple unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems to achieve predefined flying shape.

Design/methodology/approach

Two time-optimal protocols are proposed for the situations with or without human control input, respectively. Then, Pontryagin’s minimum principle approach is applied to deal with the time-optimal control problems for UAV systems, where the cost function, the initial and terminal conditions are given in advance. Moreover, necessary conditions are derived to ensure that the given performance index is optimal.

Findings

The effectiveness of the obtained time-optimal control protocols is verified by two contrastive numerical simulation examples. Consequently, the proposed protocols can successfully achieve the prescribed flying shape.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a solution to solve the time-optimal control problems for multiple UAV systems to achieve predefined flying shape.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Wanjiang Deng, Xu Guan, Shihua Ma and Shan Liu

The online crowdsourcing has been widely applied in the practice. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the all-pay auction contest in crowdsourcing, wherein a…

Abstract

Purpose

The online crowdsourcing has been widely applied in the practice. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the all-pay auction contest in crowdsourcing, wherein a seeker posts a task online and the solvers decide whether to participate in the contest and in what extent to spend efforts on their submissions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors specifically consider two classic contest formats: simultaneous contest and sequential contest, depending on whether the solver can observe the prior solvers’ submissions before making her own effort investment decision or not. They derive both seeker’s and solver’s equilibrium decisions and payoffs under different contest formats, and show that they vary significantly according to the number and the average skill level of solvers.

Findings

The results show that a solver would always invest more on her submission under simultaneous contest than under sequential contest, as she cannot confirm how other solvers’ submissions would be. This subsequently intensifies the market competition and brings down a solver’s average payoff under simultaneous contest. Although the simultaneous contest gives rise to a higher expected highest quality of all submissions, it also requires the seeker to spend more search cost to identify the best submission. Therefore, when the number of solvers is high or the average skill level is low, the seeker prefers sequential contest to simultaneous contest. The results also show an analogous preference over two formats for the platform.

Originality/value

This paper investigates two formats of all-pay auction contest in crowdsourcing and evaluates them from the perspective of solvers, seekers and platforms, respectively. The research offers many interesting insights which do not only explain the incentive mechanisms for solvers under different contest formats, but also make meaningful contributions to the seeker’s or the platform’s adoption strategies between two alternative contest formats in crowdsourcing practice.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Man He, Bo Wang, Weisheng Xia, Shijie Chen and Jinzhuan Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to study the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of smaller microbumps for high density solder interconnects.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of smaller microbumps for high density solder interconnects.

Design/methodology/approach

The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction tests to determine the Sn grain number of the resultant microbumps. The nanomechanical properties of Sn microbumps were investigated by the nanoindentation and shearing tests to understand the failure mechanism and assess the reliability of ultra-high density solder interconnects with numbered grains.

Findings

Only one Sn grain is observed in the interconnect matrix when the microbumps are miniaturized to 40 μm or less. Because of the body-centred tetragonal lattice of ß-Sn unit cell, the mechanical properties of the one-grain Sn microbumps are remarkably anisotropic, which are proved by the difference of the elastic modulus and the stiffness in the different orientations. The shearing tests show that the one-grain Sn microbump has a typical brittle sliding fracture of monocrystal at different shearing speeds.

Practical implications

The paper provides a comparable study for the performance of the bigger solder joints and also makes preliminary research on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of Sn microbumps with the diameter of 40 μm.

Originality/value

The findings in this paper provide methods of microstructure study by combination of EBSD test and metallographic analysis, mechanical study by combination of nanoindentation test and shearing test, which can provide good guidelines for other smaller microbumps. The strain rate sensitivity exponent of the one-grain Sn microbumps is consistent with the Pb-free bulk solder. This implies that the one-grain Sn microbump has a comparable flow stress to Sn37Pb solder, which is beneficial for Pb-free replacement in higher density microelectronic packaging.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Li Xuemei, Yun Cao, Junjie Wang, Yaoguo Dang and Yin Kedong

Research on grey systems is becoming more sophisticated, and grey relational and prediction analyses are receiving close review worldwide. Particularly, the application of…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on grey systems is becoming more sophisticated, and grey relational and prediction analyses are receiving close review worldwide. Particularly, the application of grey systems in marine economics is gaining importance. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and review literature on grey models, providing new directions in their application in the marine economy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper organized seminal studies on grey systems published by Chinese core journal database – CNKI, Web of Science and Elsevier from 1982 to 2018. After searching the aforementioned database for the said duration, the authors used the CiteSpace visualization tools to analyze them.

Findings

The authors sorted the studies according to their countries/regions, institutions, keywords and categories using the CiteSpace tool; analyzed current research characteristics on grey models; and discussed their possible applications in marine businesses, economy, scientific research and education, marine environment and disasters. Finally, the authors pointed out the development trend of grey models.

Originality/value

Although researches are combining grey theory with fractals, neural networks, fuzzy theory and other methods, the applications, in terms of scope, have still not met the demand. With the increasingly in-depth research in marine economics and management, international marine economic research has entered a new period of development. Grey theory will certainly attract scholars’ attention, and its role in marine economy and management will gain considerable significance.

Details

Marine Economics and Management, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-158X

Keywords

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