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– The purpose of the paper is to improve the calculability of a continuum damage failure model of composite laminates based on Tsai-Wu criteria.
The purpose of the paper is to improve the calculability of a continuum damage failure model of composite laminates based on Tsai-Wu criteria.
A technique based on viscous regularization, a characteristic element length and fracture energies of fiber and matrix are used in the model.
The calculability of the material model is improved. The modified model can predict the behavior of composite structure better.
The convergence problem and the mesh softening problem are main concern in the calculability of numerical model. In order to improve the convergence, a technique based on viscous regularization of damage variable is used. Meanwhile, characteristic element length and fracture energies of fiber and matrix are added into the damage constitutive equation to reduce the mesh sensitivity of numerical results. Finally, a laminated structure with damages is implemented using a User Material Subroutine in ABAQUS/Standard. Mesh sensitivity and value of viscosity are discussed.
This study aims to explore the interdependent impacts of online word-of-mouth (WOM) and online ads on digital product adoptions, as well as their dynamic changes…
This study aims to explore the interdependent impacts of online word-of-mouth (WOM) and online ads on digital product adoptions, as well as their dynamic changes throughout the product life cycle.
This study adopted an empirical approach by using a unique data set of five mobile games launched between 2012 and 2014 provided by Renren Games Ltd. in China.
The results indicated that advertising generally has a positive impact on WOM. During the product life cycle, the influence on volume and variance gradually decreases, whereas the impact on valence increases over time. WOM (including WOM volume and WOM valence) and advertising both have positive impacts on game adoptions. They complement each other to shape adoptions throughout the product life cycle: advertising is more effective in encouraging adoptions in the early and later stages of the demand evolution process, whereas WOM has a greater impact on adoptions in the mid-stage.
This study provided detailed managerial recommendations on how to effectively integrate different types of marketing communication and optimize the investment strategy of online ads and online WOM in different stages of the product life cycle.
First, the study enriched the theory of digital marketing communication by studying the relationship between mass media (online ads), interpersonal media (online WOM) and product adoptions in the network context. Second, it provided an empirical basis for the inference of the dynamic development of media effect in the new product diffusion theory. Third, the results will be helpful to end the debate in current theoretical literature on whether there is a complementary or alternative relationship between the two effects. Last but not least, it enriched research on the antecedents and dynamic effects of online WOM.
This chapter uses macro policy analysis conducted at the Center for Teacher Education Research (CTER), Beijing Normal University to analyze the decision-making concerning…
This chapter uses macro policy analysis conducted at the Center for Teacher Education Research (CTER), Beijing Normal University to analyze the decision-making concerning teacher internship from the perspective of national policy. Internship, a teacher preparation policy initiative in China, is both needed to ease the teacher shortages in rural and poor areas of China and to create new models of teaching practice. Attention is then given to two aspects in policy implementation – student teachers’ learning and teachers’ multiple forms of instruction – from the perspective of teacher preparation. To conclude, the chapter offers some summary statements having to do with the policy debate and the implementation of the internship in China.