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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

John M. Carroll, Sherman R. Alpert, John Karat, Mary S. Van Deusen and Mary Beth Rosson

Raison d'Etre is a hypermedia design history application. It provides access to a database of video clips containing stories and personal perspectives of design team…

Abstract

Raison d'Etre is a hypermedia design history application. It provides access to a database of video clips containing stories and personal perspectives of design team members recorded at various times during the course of a project. The system is intended to provide a simple frame‐work for recording and organizing the informal history and rationale that design teams create and share in the course of their collaboration. This article describes 1) the scenarios of use the authors are trying to support, 2) the methods they used collecting and organizing the database, and 3) the status of their prototype.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Richard A. Wright and J. Mitchell Miller

Although numerous studies recently have appeared that identify the most‐cited scholars and works in the general criminology and criminal justice literature and in several…

Abstract

Although numerous studies recently have appeared that identify the most‐cited scholars and works in the general criminology and criminal justice literature and in several specialty areas, no previous citation study has specifically examined the police studies literature. Through an analysis of 370 articles and research notes appearing from 1991 to 1995 in the areas of police studies, published in Criminology, Justice Quarterly, and four academic periodicals devoted to police studies, we list the 50 most‐cited scholars and the 36 most‐cited works. The lists of the most‐cited scholars and works in the specialty area of police studies are compared to general lists taken from leading criminology and criminal justice journals and introductory textbooks. We conclude with some thoughts about the relevance of citation analysis to specialists in police studies.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Liqun Cao, Xiaogang Deng and Shannon Barton

Applying Lundman’s organizational product thesis in explaining citizen complaints against police use of excessive physical force, the current study tests several…

Abstract

Applying Lundman’s organizational product thesis in explaining citizen complaints against police use of excessive physical force, the current study tests several hypotheses with a national data set. Tobit regression analyses of the data show that Lundman’s thesis is partially supported. Both organizational behavior and organizational characteristics are important covariates of the complaint rate against police use of excessive physical force. Although generalization is limited, police departments need to actively recruit more mature persons into the police force, reinforce field training officer programs, and continually provide more in‐service training programs for its members if they are serious in reducing citizens’ complaints.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Ross Wolf, Charlie Mesloh, Mark Henych and L. Frank Thompson

This paper aims to build on and contribute to earlier studies on use of force by the police, and examines both officer and suspect force levels during altercations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to build on and contribute to earlier studies on use of force by the police, and examines both officer and suspect force levels during altercations.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior attempts to study non‐lethal force have only recently begun to examine the multiple levels of force that may be used within a single encounter, advocating the use of a “force factor” approach. This study examines 4,303 “use of force” reports from the two agencies in Florida for a five‐year period.

Findings

Similar to prior studies which utilized data gathered by observation, this current study finds that law enforcement officers are operating at a force deficit; officer levels of force are consistently less than suspect resistance levels.

Research limitations/implications

Data examined through police reports have certain inherent limitations, including the bias of the reporting officer. Analyses of these reports make it impossible for researchers to determine the length of each portion of a conflict. While verbal commands, threats, handcuffing, and takedowns may be important forces to review, they are not well represented in the data collected.

Practical implications

These findings have critical implications for law enforcement by continuing to examine conflicts where police force is utilized, showing the importance of officers to be prepared to use decisive force at the point where verbal techniques and force de‐escalation have failed.

Originality/value

This paper is valuable to scholars and police practitioners because it continues to expand the scholarly review of police use of force, utilizing existing force continua to analyze the data, and taking into account levels of suspect resistance.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Jennifer Dirmeyer and Alexander Cartwright

Several recent incidents of highly publicized police misconduct in the United States have intensified interest in controlling police behavior. Administrative control of…

Abstract

Several recent incidents of highly publicized police misconduct in the United States have intensified interest in controlling police behavior. Administrative control of police use of force is difficult because police officers are often the primary and most credible witnesses to police misconduct, effectively giving them enforcement power over rules they are subject to; police cooperation as both rule followers and rule enforcers is necessary for effectively constraining police misconduct. The authors develop a framework for examining how organizational and institutional variables can affect individual decision making. Using this framework, the authors identify three avenues for reducing police misconduct – increasing the information generated by non-police sources, increasing the incentive for officers to cooperate with external enforcement efforts, and changing the expectations of officers regarding the attitudes and behaviors of their peers – and present a case study of Oakland California Police Department to illustrate the implications.

Details

Austrian Economics: The Next Generation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-577-7

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Geoffrey P. Lantos and Lincoln G. Craton

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model of consumer response to music in broadcast commercials outlining four variables (listening situation, musical stimulus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model of consumer response to music in broadcast commercials outlining four variables (listening situation, musical stimulus, listener characteristics, and advertising processing strategy) that affect a consumer's attitude toward the advertising music (Aam).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of an integrative review of the relevant literatures from the psychology of music, marketing, and advertising.

Findings

Aam can be positively but also negatively influenced by many factors. Only some of these variables are employed in any typical study on consumer response to music, which may account for some conflicting findings.

Practical implications

The paper discusses factors for effectively using commercial music to affect Aam, with special focus on advertising processing strategy. Advertisers are urged to exercise extreme caution in using music and to always pretest its use considering factors identified in this paper. The paper suggests ways in which the model can guide future research.

Originality/value

The paper integrates diverse literatures and outlines the major variables comprising our model of consumer response to advertising music. Advertisers can use these variables as a checklist for factors to consider in selecting ad music.

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Kim Michelle Lersch and Tom Mieczkowski

Citizen complaints filed against a small group of officers of a large police department in the south‐eastern USA were used to conduct an examination of repeat offenders…

Abstract

Citizen complaints filed against a small group of officers of a large police department in the south‐eastern USA were used to conduct an examination of repeat offenders and non‐repeat offenders. Examines differences between the offenders in the areas of officer characteristics, complaint characteristics and citizen characteristics. Finds that the all‐male group of repeat offenders was significantly younger and less experienced than their peers and was more likely to be accused of harassment. Finds that the ethnic minority group was more likely to file complaints against repeat offenders and that a disproportionate number of complaints were intraracial. Detects a cause for concern in that several high‐ranking officers reacted to the survey by reappraising the data and classing the greater offenders as productive and conscientious officers, i.e., denotes belief at high level within the police organization that a good officer should generate dissatisfaction among the general public.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2016

William Terrill, Eugene A. Paoline and Jacinta M. Gau

This chapter seeks to illuminate the interconnectedness of procedural justice, use of force, and occupational culture in relation to police legitimacy.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter seeks to illuminate the interconnectedness of procedural justice, use of force, and occupational culture in relation to police legitimacy.

Methodology/approach

The authors review the existing literature and offer an integrated methodological approach that would better assist researchers in their quest to enhance police legitimacy.

Findings

Using a systematic design that assesses police legitimacy from a variety of sources has the potential to help answer critical questions with regard to improving police practice.

Originality/value

This is a novel study approach, which has yet to be implemented but which may offer great insight with respect to improving police legitimacy.

Details

The Politics of Policing: Between Force and Legitimacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-030-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Brad W. Smith

The present study examined homicides by police officers, testing threat, community violence, and organizational hypotheses. Using UCR, SHR, Census, and LEMAS data the…

Abstract

The present study examined homicides by police officers, testing threat, community violence, and organizational hypotheses. Using UCR, SHR, Census, and LEMAS data the study extends previous research by examining the relative impact of community violence, inequality and race, and organizational characteristics on the number of killings of felons by police officers in large US cities. The findings show that measures of racial threat and community violence were related to police killings. Measures of organizational policies were largely unrelated to the number of police killings. Overall the study extends research in the area, yet it also points to a more general need for research on the effects of organizational factors on police violence.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

L. Thomas Winfree, Gregory M. Bartku and George Seibel

Looks at policing in small to medium departments in nonmetropolitan areas. Describes the level and sources of support for traditional and community policing activities…

Abstract

Looks at policing in small to medium departments in nonmetropolitan areas. Describes the level and sources of support for traditional and community policing activities. Finds that highly educated and long‐serving officers had lower levels of police solidarity (social cohesiveness); conversely the higher the police solidarity, the lower the level of police professionalism. Traditional policing and CP were seen as separate but related aspects and higher expenditure on the former aspect was supported. Suggests that officers are not in favor of funding CP at the expense of traditional policing. Finds that well‐educated officers are less supportive of police solidarity and of CP. Points out that although the officers surveyed were based in relatively isolated communities they did not unequivocally support CP.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

Keywords

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