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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Jiawei Wang, Jinliang Liu, Guanhua Zhang and Jigang Han

Considering the “size effect” and the properties degradation of building materials on the strengthened engineering, in this paper, the technology of pasting steel plate…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the “size effect” and the properties degradation of building materials on the strengthened engineering, in this paper, the technology of pasting steel plate was adopted to shear strengthen a 16 m prestressed concrete hollow slab, which had serviced 20 years in cold regions. The shear properties of shear strengthen beams are analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Shear loading test of the shear strengthened beam and the contrast beam was conducted. Then the mechanical characteristics, failure mechanism, the mechanical response and shear capacity of shear strengthened beam and contrast beam had been discussed.

Findings

The failure mode of shear strengthened beam and contrast beam was shear compression failure, and the bond failure between concrete and prestressed reinforcement happened in both of test beams. The shear strengthening method of pasting steel plate can effectively improve the mechanical response for the shear strengthened beam. Compared with the contrast beam, the cracking load and failure shear capacity for the shear strengthened beam can be effectively increased by 12.2 and 27.6%, respectively.

Originality/value

The research results can be a reference for the detection and evaluation of shear strengthened bridges, which are strengthened by pasting steel plate. Engineers can refer to the shear strengthening method in this paper to strengthen the existing bridge, which can guarantee the safety of shear strengthened bridges.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

J.S. Hwang, Z. Guo and G. Lucey

Conventional solder materials are generally low temperature and low strength materials which are particularly vulnerable to temperature and stress. Even under ambient…

Abstract

Conventional solder materials are generally low temperature and low strength materials which are particularly vulnerable to temperature and stress. Even under ambient temperature, 298±5°K, the homologous temperature of most soft solder compositions exceeds 0.5. It is therefore anticipated that the properties and behaviour of such solder compositions could alter significantly when they are exposed to temperature change, temperature rise and/or a moderate level of stresses. With the continued innovation and development of microelectronic packages along with the intense global competition, the reliability of solder joints and the quality and yield of making solder joints in production become increasingly important. This research is to address the fundamental material deficiencies of conventional solders in an effort to develop superior solder materials. Several material principles have been considered including both intrinsic material and soldering process approaches. This paper presents the preliminary results of strengthening effects from the intrinsic material approach. The soldering process effects will be presented in a separate paper. The strengthening effects were evaluated by the combined consideration of monotonic shearing, creep and isothermal low cycle fatigue tests. Fatigue fractography and microstructure of the strengthened solder were characterised in comparison with conventional 63Sn/37Pb solder. The results showed that the proprietary solder system possesses a higher monotonic flow resistance as cyclic frequency decreases to 10−4 Hz. Deformation mechanisms and fatigue failure modes are also discussed in this paper.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Danie Roy Anasco Bastin, Umesh Kumar Sharma and Pradeep Bhargava

The main aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of various strengthening techniques in restoring the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of various strengthening techniques in restoring the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams damaged by elevated temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

Three different strengthening techniques, namely, high-strength fibre reinforced concrete (HSFRC), ferrocement (FC) jacketing and externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) were used. Series of RC beams were casted, heated, strengthened and tested to investigate the influence of various variables. The variables of the study were type of strengthening and level of heat damage.

Findings

Externally bonded FRP was found to be the best among the various techniques, especially with respect to strength and stiffness restoration. On the contrary, the FRP strengthening was not that effective in restoring the energy absorption capacity of beams compared to HSFRC and FC techniques of strengthening. The chosen strengthening techniques were able to restore the failure mode of beams to flexural failure, which was found to have changed to shear failure in case of heated unstrenghthened beams.

Originality/value

This research program has contributed to the fundamental understanding of designing post fire retrofit solutions for RC beams.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Mohammad Javad Kazemi, Shahabeddin Hatami, Abdolreza Zare and Ali Parvaneh

This paper aims to study the lateral behavior of cold-formed steel walls with K-shaped bracing by finite element modeling.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the lateral behavior of cold-formed steel walls with K-shaped bracing by finite element modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

The braces which have the same section as those for studs and tracks are connected to the frame by screw connections. By pushover analysis, lateral performance of two frame categories, with different dimensions and bracing arrangements, is examined, and the force-displacement diagram and the ultimate strength of walls are extracted. Probable failure modes during lateral loading including distortional buckling of studs, buckling in braces and failure of connections are simulated in the numerical model, and some strengthening suggestions would be offered to prevent brittle failures and, therefore, to increase the lateral strength of the walls.

Findings

The strengthened walls are examined, and their seismic behavior is compared with the original walls. Finally, a parametric study is carried out to evaluate the effect of factors such as thickness of frame members, frame height and yield tension of members on lateral behavior of the shear walls.

Originality/value

In the present research, lateral strength and failure modes of nine types of cold-formed steel shear walls with different arrangements of K-shaped bracing are examined by non-linear finite element analysis, and a parametric study is carried out to extract the effect of the wall frame characteristics on the lateral behavior. Shear walls are classified into two series.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Sabiha Barour and Abdesselam Zergua

This paper aims to analyze the performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets subjected to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets subjected to four-point bending.

Design/methodology/approach

ANSYS software is used to build six models. In addition, SOILD65, LINK180, SHELL181 and SOLID185 elements are used, respectively, to model concrete, steel reinforcement, polymer and steel plate support. A comparative study between the nonlinear finite element and analytical models, including the ACI 440.2 R-08 and FIB14 models as well as experimental data, is also carried out.

Findings

The comparative study of the nonlinear finite element results with analytical models shows that the difference between the predicted load capacity ranges from 4.44%–24.49% in the case of the ACI 440.2 R-08 model, while the difference for FIB14 code ranges from 2.69%–26.03%. It is clear that there is a good agreement between the nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) results and the different expected CFRP codes.

Practical implications

This model can be used to explore the behavior and predict the RC beams strengthened in shear with different CFRP properties. They could be used as a numerical platform in contrast to expensive and time-consuming experimental tests.

Originality/value

On the basis of the results, a good match is found between the model results and the experimental data at all stages of loading the tested samples. Load capacities as well as load deflection curves are also presented. It is concluded that the differences between the loads at failure ranged from 0.09%–6.16% and 0.56%–4.98%, comparing with experimental study. In addition, the increase in compressive strength produces an increase in the ultimate load capacity of the beam. The difference in the ultimate load capacity was less than 30% when compared with the American Concrete Institute and FIB14 codes.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

R.V. Balendran, T.M. Rana and A. Nadeem

Presents an overview and discusses the applications of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and plates in the strengthening of concrete structures. An insight may be…

Abstract

Presents an overview and discusses the applications of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and plates in the strengthening of concrete structures. An insight may be obtained from the discussions made to enhance the use of these techniques for productive use. In addition, selected case studies have been furnished where FRP materials have been used for repairing/retrofitting, emphasizing the application of different types of FRP materials in strengthening concrete structures. Concludes that the use of FRP material is rapidly gaining pace and replacing the traditional steel or metal based materials due to its enhanced properties and cost effectiveness.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Abdurra’uf Mukhtar Gora, Jayaprakash Jaganathan, Mohammed Parvez Anwar and Hau Y. Leung

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of experimental and theoretical studies on the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of experimental and theoretical studies on the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened using externally bonded bi-directional glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites and different end anchorage systems.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of nine RC beams with a length of 1,600 mm and a cross-section of 200 mm depth and 100 mm width were prepared and externally strengthened in flexure with bi-directional GFRP composites. These strengthened beams were anchored with three different end anchorage systems namely closed GFRP wraps, GFRP U-wraps and mechanical anchors. All these beams were tested with four-point bending system up to failure. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical results obtained using the relevant design guidelines.

Findings

The experimental results demonstrate a significant increase in the flexural performance of the GFRP strengthened beams with regard to the ultimate load carrying capacity and stiffness. The results also show that GFRP strengthened beams without end anchorages experienced intermediate concrete debonding failure at the GFRP plate end, whereas all the GFRP strengthened beams with different end anchorage systems failed in rupture of GFRP with concrete crushing. The theoretical results revealed no significant difference among the relevant design guidelines with regard to the predicted ultimate moment capacities of the bi-directional GFRP strengthened RC beams. However, the results show that ACI Committee 440 Report (2008) design recommendation provides reasonably acceptable predictions for the ultimate moment capacities of the tested beams strengthened externally with bi-directional GFRP reinforcement followed by FIB Bulletin 14 (2001) and eventually by JSCE (1997).

Originality/value

The research work presented in this manuscript is authentic and could contribute to the understanding of the overall behaviour of RC beams strengthened with FRP and different end anchorage systems under flexural loading.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1995

Y.N. Ziraba, M.H. Baluch, A.M. Sharif, G.J. Al—Sulaimani, A.K. Azad and I.A. Basunbul

This paper presents a finite element model for analysis of damaged RCbeams strengthened or repaired by externally bonding glass fibre reinforcedplastics (GFRP) on the…

Abstract

This paper presents a finite element model for analysis of damaged RC beams strengthened or repaired by externally bonding glass fibre reinforced plastics (GFRP) on the tension side of the beams. The salient features include: (i) the introduction of a thin, six—noded element to simulate behaviour of the concrete/epoxy glue/GFRP interface and )ii( a scheme of loading a virgin RC beam to a prescribed displacement to simulate damage, unloading and then reloading the damaged RC beam fortified by an externally bonded GFRP plate. Results are presented for RC beams repaired by plates of varying thickness and a transmutation of failure mode is noted from classical flexure for the case of external reinforcement in the form of thin GFRP plates to a unique concrete cover rip off failure for thicker GFRP plates and not predicted by the ACI shear strength formula for diagonal tension failure of unplated RC beams of similar geometry.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Wei Liu, Rong An, Chunqing Wang and Yanhong Tian

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of typical morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs (intermetallic compounds) at the interfaces of solder and pads on shear

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of typical morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs (intermetallic compounds) at the interfaces of solder and pads on shear properties of laser reflowed micro-solder joints.

Design/methodology/approach

Sn-2.0Ag-0.75Cu-3.0Bi (SnAgCuBi) solder balls (120 μm in diameter), pads with 0.1, 0.5, 0.9 or 4.0 μm thickness of Au surface finish, and different laser input energies were utilized to fabricate micro-solder joints with Au-Sn IMCs having different typical morphologies. The joints were performed by a shear test through a DAGE bond test system. Fracture surfaces of the joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry to identify fracture modes and locations.

Findings

Morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs would affect shear properties of the joints remarkably. When needle-like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces of solder and pads, almost entire surfaces presented the manner of ductile fracture. Moreover, shear forces of this kind of solder joints were higher than those of joints without Au-Sn IMCs or with a nearly continuous/continuous Au-Sn IMCs layer. The reason was that the shear performance of the solder joints with needle-like AuSn4 IMCs was enhanced by an interlocking effect between solder and needle-like AuSn4 IMCs. As a nearly continuous or continuous Au-Sn IMCs layer formed, the fracture surfaces presented more character of brittle than ductile fracture. However, if an Au layer still remained under Au-Sn IMCs, the shear performance of the joints would be enhanced.

Originality/value

The results in this study can be used to optimize microstructures and shear properties of laser reflowed micro-solder joints.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

J.R. Correia, M. Garrido, J.A. Gonilha, F.A. Branco and L.G. Reis

The purpose of this paper is to present experimental investigations on the structural behaviour of composite sandwich panels for civil engineering applications. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present experimental investigations on the structural behaviour of composite sandwich panels for civil engineering applications. The performance of two different core materials – rigid plastic polyurethane (PU) foam and polypropylene (PP) honeycomb – combined with glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins, and the effect of using GFRP ribs along the longitudinal edges of the panels were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The experimental campaign first included flatwise tensile tests on the GFRP skins; edgewise and flatwise compressive tests; flatwise tensile tests on small‐scale sandwich specimens; and shear tests on the core materials. Subsequently, flexural static and dynamic tests were carried out in full‐scale sandwich panels (2.50×0.50×0.10 m3) in order to evaluate their service and failure behaviour. Linear elastic analytical and numerical models of the tested sandwich panels were developed in order to confirm the effects of varying the core material and of introducing GFRP ribs.

Findings

Tests confirmed the considerable influence of the core, namely of its stiffness and strength, on the performance of the unstrengthened panels; in addition, tests showed that the introduction of lateral reinforcements significantly increases the stiffness and strength of the panels, with the shear behaviour of strengthened panels being governed by the ribs. The unstrengthened panels collapsed due to core shear failure, while the strengthened panels failed due to face skin delamination followed by crushing of the skins. The models, validated with the experimental results, allowed simulating the serviceability behaviour of the sandwich panels with a good accuracy.

Originality/value

The present study confirmed that composite sandwich panels made of GFRP skins and PU rigid foam or PP honeycomb cores have significant potential for a wide range of structural applications, presenting significant stiffness and strength, particularly when strengthened with lateral GFRP ribs.

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