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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2011

Shaukat Ali Shah, Erik L.J. Bohez and Roongrat Pisuchpen

A major factor to the success of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) is their ability to transport work pieces between different workstations. FMS have now become more…

Abstract

Purpose

A major factor to the success of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) is their ability to transport work pieces between different workstations. FMS have now become more advanced and material‐handling systems have become progressively more sophisticated, it is not exceptional to have automated steering of tools to workstations as well. Such system design will improve the tool‐handling capability and the system productivity while holding tool cost to a minimum. Tool cost could represent as much as 25 percent of the operating cost. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new colored Petri net (CPN)‐based approach to the design and development of a tool sharing control system that is intended to help use of the proper and minimal number of tools for a manufacturing system.

Design/methodology/approach

A new black token timed PN model is first developed, to reduce the complexity of the graphical representation a new CPN model is developed. The new CPN model also allows to find the optimal sequence. The optimal sequence has no effect on the work in process (WIP) but it influences the number of tools used in the system. The main input to the PN model for a manufacturing system is the process plan. Next, all the invariants and total number of possible elementary circuits are determined using the Integrated Net Analyzer (INA) software. Output from the INA software is exported to the Excel spreadsheet. The Excel spreadsheet can be designed to calculate the total number of tokens, processing time, cycle time, etc. of each elementary circuit. Subsequently, the constraints used in Lingo will be created according to critical circuit rules. Finally, linear programming (LP) technique is used to optimize the WIP and tool inventory. Lingo software is used for the LP, the constraints from the Excel sheet will be the input data to the Lingo program, and based on those constraints the Lingo will provide the optimal values for the desired parameters. The output from Lingo will be used to recalculate the cycle time of each elementary circuit in the Excel sheet. The system is then analyzed before and after the implementation of the CPN model.

Findings

A new CPN model based on tool‐sharing philosophy for an FMS with N part types and M stations is proposed.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new CPN‐based approach to the design and development of a tool sharing control system, that is, intended to help use of the proper and minimal number of tools for a manufacturing system. The new CPN model also allows to find the optimal sequence. The idea is new and pure and has not been presented before using the methodology adopted in this paper.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Zainab Fakhr and Hazel Messenger

Academic freedom and the right to express one’s views in higher education (HE) are important for faculty and students alike, so enabling intellectual integrity and…

Abstract

Academic freedom and the right to express one’s views in higher education (HE) are important for faculty and students alike, so enabling intellectual integrity and professional autonomy. However, this might not be the case for female academics in countries where females are marginalised, and their opinions are dominated and limited by the society and culture. Gender inequality and how it negatively influences the opportunities available for females to progress is a universal issue; however, although initiatives designed to tackle this problem are being seen to result in gradual improvement internationally, particularly in industrial countries, the situation in developing countries remains a concern. In developing countries, women tend to be either absent from many organisations or exist at the margins of organisational life with the result that they have fewer opportunities for development or career progression. This has a negative impact on the growth and development of a country at national level, particularly when there has been investment in female education from an earlier stage. It would seem that this certainly is the case in Pakistan where cultural norms intertwine with organisational politics thus militating against female employees. The experiences and issues discussed in this chapter highlight the social barriers faced by female academics in HE that have a significant impact on their academic freedom and expression.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Abstract

Details

Faculty and Student Research in Practicing Academic Freedom
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-701-3

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Burcu Ilter, Gul Bayraktaroglu and Ilayda Ipek

The purpose of this study is to test Islamic religiosity scale’s reliability and validity and to evaluate the impact of Islamic religiosity on materialism in Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test Islamic religiosity scale’s reliability and validity and to evaluate the impact of Islamic religiosity on materialism in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative research method, a self-administered survey was distributed to the students of two faculties – Faculty of Theology and Faculty of Business – of the same university in Izmir, Turkey. In total, 400 questionnaires for each faculty were distributed and a total of 529 completed questionnaires – 326 from the Faculty of Theology and 203 from the Faculty of Business – were returned. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted via SPSS and AMOS.

Findings

Islamic religiosity and materialism have been found to be negatively correlated, supporting the existing literature. However, not all the dimensions of Islamic religiosity (behavioral religiosity, spiritual religiosity and necessity of religion) had this negative effect on materialism (possession-defined success, acquisition centrality and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness). Negative influence of “behavioral religiosity” on all three dimensions of materialism was observed. However, the “spirituality” dimension of religiosity was found to have a positive impact, while the “necessity of religion” had no significant impact on the dimensions of materialism.

Research limitations/implications

A sample consisting of undergraduate students might limit the generalizability of the findings to Turkish Islamic population in general. This study is one of the first attempts to test the Islamic religiosity scale which needs to be further analyzed and developed.

Originality/value

The present study will contribute to the literature by testing an Islamic religiosity scale developed by a Turkish researcher. Besides, this is the only study undertaken on the impact of Islamic religiosity on materialism using an Islamic religiosity scale.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Muhammad Habib Rana and Muhammad Shaukat Malik

The purpose of this paper is to present a concise overview of available research work on Islamic principles related to human resource management (HRM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a concise overview of available research work on Islamic principles related to human resource management (HRM).

Design/methodology/approach

With the purpose in view, an effort was made to collect books, journal articles and research papers. The selected works cover the period from 2003 to 2014. The reason behind selection of this period is the fact that during this time, an increased emphasis on religion, particularly Islam, has been felt the world over. The ideas and inferences out of those works have been compiled in a concise and ordered form. Compilation of ideas has been thematically arranged on the basis of different areas of HRM which led to the findings of the study.

Findings

Business organizations in Islamic countries or those being managed by the Muslims generally claim to follow Islamic management principles. However, practical adherence to these principles varies in various shades depending on national and organizational culture. The reviewed literature covers the theory of HRM and identifies the Islamic principles related to it. Mostly, the researchers have elaborated the Islamic guidelines related to HRM; however, a few have also ventured to find out practical application of Islamic principles and their efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

Books and articles included in this review do not present wholesome picture. Although random selection from various authors and journals neutralizes the limitation to some extent, a more comprehensive review may improve the findings.

Originality/value

Religion has proven to be a driving force in the display of human commitment and devotion in various forms of competitions including war. Identification of the role of religion in business can open new vistas in HRM. The glimpses of the role of Islam in business, especially HRM, included in this review can have far reaching impact.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Muhammad Habib Rana and Muhammad Shaukat Malik

The purpose of this paper is to establish the impact of human resource (HR) practices on organizational performance and moderating effect of Islamic principles on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the impact of human resource (HR) practices on organizational performance and moderating effect of Islamic principles on the impact in Pakistani business organizations. It aims at finding efficacy of HR practices as well as the role of Islamic teachings in business.

Design/methodology/approach

Five broad categories of HR practices: selection, training, compensation, performance appraisal and employee participation, have been taken as independent variables and their impact has been assessed on organizational performance: dependent variable, keeping the application of the Islamic principles as moderating variable. Data were collected from employees of mobile telecommunication service providers operating in Pakistan through a questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale and then analyzed in SPSS.

Findings

HR practices, including selection, training, compensation, performance appraisal and employee participation, have been found to be significantly and positively related to organizational performance. Moderation by the application of Islamic principles was observed to be positive. Its magnitude generally displayed decreasing trend with an increase in level of application.

Research limitations/implications

Measurement of Islamic work ethics and organizational performance has been unidirectional, gauged only on the basis of employees’ judgment. Inclusion of organizational and market data in future studies will add to the value of the outcome. Understudy business organizations grudgingly provided required information, in spite of personal connections and liaison, because of their organizational policies, commitments and limited concern with the research. Lists of employees were not shared with the researchers, which left only the option of convenient sampling. More reliable sampling techniques are recommended for future research on the subject. Moreover, the sampling frame was limited to the province of Punjab because of shortage of resources. Future research on the subject is suggested to have a broader base, including organizations interested to participate in the exercise of research.

Practical implications

Outcome of the study will provide useful guidelines to the business organizations by clarifying whether business is a religion-neutral affair or not. It is also expected to provide a line of thought for self-assessment and improvement. The concept of maximization of profit for a business organization can be evolved to a win–win arrangement by the maximization of benefit for all stakeholders. This is a logical and certain outcome once a business organization takes care of its employees, society, environment and, definitely, its shareholders.

Originality/value

A few studies exist on human resource management in Islamic as well as Pakistani context; however, the role of the religion and its contribution toward organizational performance has not been amply crystallized. This is just an endeavor in hitherto less frequented direction.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Naimatullah Shah and Bahadur Ali Soomro

Nowadays, entrepreneurship is regarded as an indispensable means for economic development. In this regard, promoting entrepreneurship is a necessity for every economy. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, entrepreneurship is regarded as an indispensable means for economic development. In this regard, promoting entrepreneurship is a necessity for every economy. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that may influence students’ entrepreneurial intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework underlying this study is the theory of planned behavior, and the study proposes a descriptive methodology in which cross-sectional data are randomly collected from the different public sector universities of Pakistan. A survey questionnaire was used as a means for data collection. The respondents were bachelor’s as well as master’s degree students who are pursuing degrees in entrepreneurship or education. After cleaning the data, 385 usable answers were analyzed. The response rate was 60 percent. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 was used for data analysis.

Findings

The results of Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis showed that attitudes toward behavior and subjective norms have a positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention. On the other hand, perceived behavioral control has no significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention.

Originality/value

Such a study may provide useful insights into the state of entrepreneurship education for policy makers and planners in universities as well as in government, regarding the younger generation, particularly, to reduce the burden of graduate unemployment.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 59 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist…

Abstract

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist trends in the country. State patronage of the extremist Wahabi Islamists during the Afghan jihad opened another conflict in Pakistan, and things became more complicated. The combination of external and internal factors gave birth to the worst kind of conflict, which now has not only become dangerous for the country's own existence but also a major threat for global peace. The Afghan jihad initially started as a war against Soviet occupation and later became the hub of global jihad-war against infidels.

This chapter analyzes how external factors promoted internal contradictions in Pakistan due to which the country became not only an exporter of jihadis for the world but also the worst kind of sectarian conflicts, including. Shia–Sunni, Deobandi–Wahabi clashes, entered into in the past two decades. Such a strong link exists with Pakistan's official support to global jihad. Draft sectarian groups now head to head with their opponents have killed thousands of members of rival sectors, have strong support from external sympathizers, and have spread in the country. The well planned terrorist activities of these groups reflect the fact that support to these groups in the past is now leading to a severe crisis in Pakistan. The nexuses of these indigenous extremists like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen with external terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan of Tahir Yuldasher Chechen Guerilla War has led to several bloody clashes in the country and outside.

Details

Governance, Development and Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-896-1

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Ali Raza, Raouf Ahmad Rather, Muhammad Khalid Iqbal and Umair Saeed Bhutta

This paper aims to address the need for a more in-depth empirical investigation of exploring the link between the adoption of corporate social responsibility (CSR…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the need for a more in-depth empirical investigation of exploring the link between the adoption of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and different aspects of customer behavior in a developing country. This paper develops a research framework and assesses the mediating role of trust, customer-company identification (CCI) and electronic-service quality (E-SQ) between customer perceptions of CSR and customer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Working with a sample of 280 banking customers in Pakistan, partial least square based structural equation modeling is used to test the conceptual model.

Findings

Surprisingly, results suggest that CSR is not directly related to customer loyalty, which is contradictory to previously established findings conducted in developed countries. Thus, confirming a full mediation of CCI, E-SQ and trust in enhancing the effect of CSR on customer loyalty. The study also confirms that CSR is positively related to E-SQ, and E-SQ also directly affects CCI.

Practical implications

Banks should adhere to honest CSR practices and effectively communicate and advertise these practices to increase awareness and knowledge among the customers. Similarly, banks should advance in technological expertise to generate customer identification, which then leads to their loyalty.

Originality/value

Previous studies conferred short-term customer’s reactions, such as purchase intention and brand image. Still, this research discusses the long-term effect of CSR on customer behavior, such as the loyalty of the customers. Moreover, this is the pioneer study that investigates how CSR actions influence customer perceptions about E-SQ and how electronic services affect customer identification with a bank.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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