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Annual influenza epidemics cause great losses in both human and financial terms. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for optimizing a large-scale influenza…
Annual influenza epidemics cause great losses in both human and financial terms. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for optimizing a large-scale influenza vaccination program (VP). The goal is to minimize the total cost of the vaccination supply chain while guaranteeing a sufficiently high level of population protection. From a practical point of view, the analysis returns the number of shipments and the quantity of vaccines in each periodic shipment that should be delivered from the manufacturers to the distribution center (DC), from the DC to the clinics, and from the clinics to each sub-group of customers during the vaccination season.
A mixed-integer programming optimization model is developed to describe the problem for a supply chain consisting of vaccine manufacturers, the healthcare organization (HCO) (comprising the DC and clinics), and the population being vaccinated (customers). The model suggests a VP that implemented by a nation-wide HCO.
The benefits of the proposed approach are shown to be particularly salient in cases of limited resources, as the model distributes demand backlogs in an efficient manner, prioritizing high-risk sub-groups of the population over lower-risk sub-groups. In particular, the authors show a reduction in direct medical burden of consumers, such as the need for doctors, hospitalization resources, and reduction of indirect, non-medical burden, such as loss of workdays.
Drawing from the extended enterprise paradigm, and, in particular, taking consumer benefits into account, the authors suggest an operational-strategic model that creates impressive added value in a highly constrained supply chain. The model constitutes a powerful decision tool for the deployment of large-scale seasonal products, and its implementation can yield multiple benefits for various consumer segments.
The model proposed herein constitutes a decision support tool comprising operational-tactical and tactical-strategic perspectives, which logistics managers can utilize to create an enterprise-oriented plan that takes into account medical and non-medical costs.
The goal of this study is to examine the association between managers' sexually-oriented behavior in publicly traded firms and subsequent stock market reactions. Both…
The goal of this study is to examine the association between managers' sexually-oriented behavior in publicly traded firms and subsequent stock market reactions. Both sexual harassment and nonharassing sexually-oriented behavior (i.e. workplace romance) are associated with negative shareholder reactions. The authors also examine factors that may alter the stock market reaction and those that may reduce the risk of lawsuit in sexual harassment cases.
Information about incidents of sexually-oriented behavior was collected from media reports and content coded. An event study with a stock market reaction was used to measure the impact of disclosed sexually-oriented behaviors. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between incident characteristics and sexual harassment lawsuits.
Disclosure of managers' sexually-oriented behavior is associated with a negative stock market reaction. Interestingly, the reaction was not more severe for sexual harassment disclosures compared to nonharassing behavior (i.e. workplace romance). Results also suggest that terminating a manager prior to disclosure of an event is negatively related to a harassment lawsuit.
The authors report this as the first study to focus on the stock market reaction of sexually-oriented harassing and nonharassing behavior of managers. This work complements research that documents the negative impact of sexual harassment on individuals by demonstrating these behaviors are associated with loss and risk at an organizational level.