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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Kevin Cullinane, Rickard Bergqvist, Sharon Cullinane, Shengda Zhu and Linkai Wang

The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical conceptualization of how data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be applied to rail freight rolling stock in order to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical conceptualization of how data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be applied to rail freight rolling stock in order to develop a tariff for track access charges which is functionally dependent upon the derived relative benchmark values of performance.

Design/methodology/approach

It is posited that track access charges should be differentiated to reflect differences in the performance of rolling stock and that this can be achieved purely on the basis of technical and other characteristics. The performance benchmarking of rolling stock is proposed as the basis for formulating and justifying a performance-based tariff structure. Using DEA, relative index measures of rolling stock performance can be derived, benchmark performance can be identified and a tariff structure can be developed.

Findings

A workable approach to implementing the concept, utilizing existing in-house databases, is found to be feasible and a template for tariff setting is established.

Research limitations/implications

In the absence of access to in-house technical data on rolling stock, which is commercially sensitive, no empirical application of the concept is possible.

Originality/value

There are many ways to improve the efficiency of a railway system. Many are inherently long term and involve significant investment. Using Sweden as an example, this paper proposes the more immediate, simpler and cheaper approach of incentivising the use of better rolling stock through appropriate track access charging. Such an approach should reduce the number of problems arising on the rail network and the costs imposed on other rail users, the infrastructure providers and society. Ultimately, the implementation of this approach would support the objective of increasing long-term robustness and reducing disruptions to railways.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2014

Sharon Cullinane

Long haul freight transport imposes huge negative environmental externalities on society. Although these can never be entirely eliminated, they can be reduced. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Long haul freight transport imposes huge negative environmental externalities on society. Although these can never be entirely eliminated, they can be reduced. The purpose of this chapter is to analyse some of the many mitigating measures, or interventions, that can be used.

Methodology/approach

The approach used in this chapter is to review the literature and provide an overview of the main theoretical and practical mitigation measures available to transport operators.

Research limitations

There are literally thousands of possible mitigation measures and combinations that can be used by operators to reduce their environmental footprint. Each of these measures warrants a separate chapter. This chapter can only present an overview of the principle available measures. Although some mainland European examples are used, it is acknowledged that the examples used are somewhat skewed towards the United Kingdom.

Originality/value of the chapter

The value of the chapter is in bringing together some of the many measures and approaches that can be used to reduce the environmental externalities of long haul freight transport. Much of the information on such interventions is based on industrial and EU project sources rather than purely academic research and so is less likely to be found in academic journals.

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Julia Edwards, Alan McKinnon and Sharon Cullinane

This paper seeks to examine the various stages in online and conventional retail supply chains in order to assess their relative environmental impacts. With reference to…

4672

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the various stages in online and conventional retail supply chains in order to assess their relative environmental impacts. With reference to boundary issues, utilisation factors and carbon allocation, it seeks to highlight some of the difficulties in establishing a robust carbon auditing methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

Auditing issues are considered from the point of divergence in the respective supply chains (downstream of this point a product is destined either for conventional or online retailing channels, and will receive different treatment accordingly).

Findings

The paper explores methodological issues associated with carbon auditing conventional and online retail channels. Having highlighted the problems, it suggests resolutions to these issues.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is mostly conceptual in nature.

Practical implications

The approach outlined in this paper, once applied, allows the identification of inefficiencies in the respective retail supply chains.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to discuss carbon auditing in relation to upstream supply chain analysis for both conventional and online retail channels. Previous work has tended to focus on the last mile delivery.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Julia B. Edwards, Alan C. McKinnon and Sharon L. Cullinane

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the carbon intensity of “last mile” deliveries (i.e. deliveries of goods from local depots to the home) and personal shopping trips.

9298

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the carbon intensity of “last mile” deliveries (i.e. deliveries of goods from local depots to the home) and personal shopping trips.

Design/methodology/approach

Several last mile scenarios are constructed for the purchase of small, non‐food items, such as books, CDs, clothing, cameras and household items. Official government data, operational data from a large logistics service provider, face‐to‐face and telephone interviews with company managers and realistic assumptions derived from the literature form the basis of the calculations. Allowance has been made for home delivery failures, “browsing” trips to the shops and the return of unwanted goods.

Findings

Overall, the research suggests that, while neither home delivery nor conventional shopping has an absolute CO2 advantage, on average, the home delivery operation is likely to generate less CO2 than the typical shopping trip. Nevertheless, CO2 emissions per item for intensive/infrequent shopping trips by bus could match online shopping/home delivery.

Research limitations/implications

The number of items purchased per shopping trip, the choice of travel mode and the willingness to combine shopping with other activities and to group purchases into as few shopping trips or online transactions as possible are shown to be critical factors. Online retailers and home delivery companies could also apply measures (e.g. maximising drop densities and increasing the use of electric vehicles) to enhance the CO2 efficiency of their logistical operations and gain a clearer environmental advantage.

Practical implications

Both consumers and suppliers need to be made more aware of the environmental implications of their respective purchasing behaviour and distribution methods so that potential CO2 savings can be made.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into the carbon footprints of conventional and online retailing from a “last mile” perspective.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2014

Abstract

Details

Sustainable Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-062-9

Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2014

Abstract

Details

Sustainable Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-062-9

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Árni Halldórsson and Gyöngyi Kovács

This double special issue called for logistics solutions and supply chains in times of climate change. The purpose of this editorial is to investigate the current and…

10168

Abstract

Purpose

This double special issue called for logistics solutions and supply chains in times of climate change. The purpose of this editorial is to investigate the current and future implications of climate change, and in particular, energy efficiency for logistics and supply chain management (SCM).

Design/methodology/approach

Against the backdrop of climate change, a conceptual framework is constructed that reflects on the immediate and tangible effects of a sustainable agenda on logistics and SCM.

Findings

Energy efficiency has been largely neglected in logistics and SCM. At the same time, considering energy efficiency requires considerable rethinking on the operational level (from transportation emissions to the cold chain) as well as even the conceptual level. The energy agenda needs a further development of logistics theory and practice.

Originality/value

The editorial highlights the challenges of sustainability and energy in the context of logistics and SCM pertaining to their novelty, importance and interdependence. SCM needs to develop new performance measures that include measures of energy efficiency, in order to adapt to an environment where the old assumption of low fuel costs does not hold stand.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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