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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Reenu Kumari, Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Sharjeel Saleem, Ghulam Yahya Khan, Bilal Ahmed Abbasi and Lydia Bares Lopez

This study examines the long-term and causal relationship among foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, trade openness and economic growth from India.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the long-term and causal relationship among foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, trade openness and economic growth from India.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has used annual time series data from the period 1985–2018 and applied the Johansen cointegration and vector autoregression (VAR) model.

Findings

The results of Johansen's cointegration confirm no long-term relationship among all the above three variables. Further, the results of VAR Granger causality indicate that FDI causes economic growth and economic growth causes FDI, which confirms the bi-directional causality. In contrast, this study found that there is no bi-directional causality between trade openness and economic growth.

Social implications

Through this study, the government could take the decisions related to foreign investment after adopting more trade openness because the study results revealed that if India follows more trade openness, then how FDI will flow (upward and downward). With impulse analysis, researchers, government and policymakers take the decision-related FDI inflows for the forthcoming ten years after 2018.

Originality/value

This study has found the most exciting results from the impulse functions of FDI inflows, trade openness and economic growth, which showed the situation of these three variables as increase and decrease in the forthcoming ten years.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Sadia Afzal, Muhammad Arshad, Sharjeel Saleem and Omer Farooq

The purpose of this paper is to explain the mediational mechanisms in the relationship of perceived supervisor support (PSS) with turnover intention (TI) and task performance (TP).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the mediational mechanisms in the relationship of perceived supervisor support (PSS) with turnover intention (TI) and task performance (TP).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through questionnaires from the academic staff of Pakistani universities. The theoretical model was tested using data collected from 304 respondents by using structural equation modeling technique. Mediation analysis was performed with 5,000 bootstraps samples.

Findings

The results revealed that PSS affected TI negatively through the mediation of self-efficacy. Conversely to this, PSS influenced TP positively through the mediation of self-efficacy. In addition, the results also showed the direct effect of PSS on employees’ TP.

Practical implications

The results of this study suggest that the supervisor must provide adequate support to the academic staff, which helps them to develop their self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is helpful for the employees to reduce their TI and to improve their TP.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its nature which explained the direct and indirect effects of PSS on TI and TP by using the framework of social learning theory and social exchange theory simultaneously.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Muhammad Arshad, Sharjeel Saleem, Rabeeya Raoof and Naheed Sultana

Unlike the previous studies that examined the direct relationship between media attention on entrepreneurship (MAE) and entrepreneurship participation, this paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Unlike the previous studies that examined the direct relationship between media attention on entrepreneurship (MAE) and entrepreneurship participation, this paper aims to examine the mediated link through entrepreneurial intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The cognitive theory of media provides the foundation for predictions that primary outcome of MAE is the entrepreneurial intention which in turn affects the different types of entrepreneurship participation (early-stage startup activities, new product development [NPD] activities and informal investment activities). The test of the hypothesized model relies on panel data for 2010–2015 on 40 developing and developed countries taken from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor report of 2015.

Findings

MAE has an indirect effect on two types of entrepreneurship participation (early-stage startup activities and informal investment activities) via entrepreneurial intention, whereas there is no direct or indirect effect of MAE on NPD activities. The findings also suggest when the entrepreneurial intention is added as a mediator in the model; the direct effect of MAE on early-stage entrepreneurial activities becomes insignificant.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study in its nature which established the relationship between MAE and entrepreneurial intention. In addition, this study also explained the mediation mechanism between the relationship of MAE and entrepreneurship participation by using the panel data.

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2021

Inam Ul Haq, Usman Raja, Imtiaz Alam, Dirk De Clercq and Sharjeel Saleem

With a foundation in social exchange theory, this study examines the relationship between servant leadership and three types of workplace mistreatment – bullying…

Abstract

Purpose

With a foundation in social exchange theory, this study examines the relationship between servant leadership and three types of workplace mistreatment – bullying, incivility and ostracism – while also considering a mediating role of trust in the leader and a moderating role of the ethical climate.

Design/methodology/approach

Three time-lagged sets of data (N = 431) were collected among employees working in various sectors.

Findings

Servant leadership relates significantly to trust in the leader, as well as to workplace bullying, incivility and ostracism. In turn, trust in the leader mediates the relationship between servant leadership and all three types of workplace mistreatment. The results also indicate the presence of moderated mediation, in that the indirect effect of servant leadership on workplace mistreatment is moderated by the ethical climate.

Originality/value

This study adds to extant research by examining the mediating mechanism of trust in leaders with servant leadership and workplace mistreatment, along with interactive effects of ethical climate.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 51 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Sarfraz Zaman, Muhammad Arshad, Naheed Sultana and Sharjeel Saleem

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of family business exposure on individuals' entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). By applying the institutional framework at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of family business exposure on individuals' entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). By applying the institutional framework at the micro level, this study proposed the mediation of three types of institutional forces (coercive, normative and mimetic) between the relationship of family business exposure and EIs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 367 university students in Pakistan. The survey design was used for the data collection. The measurement and hypothesized models were tested using the structural equation modeling technique in Mplus 7.0.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed that family business exposure positively influenced the institutional forces (coercive, normative and mimetic) which further developed the individuals' EIs. However, family business exposure did not affect the EIs directly that showed the full mediation of institutional forces between the relationship of family business exposure and EIs.

Originality/value

This is the first study in its nature which applied institutional theory from the macro level to the micro level within the context of family business. The results revealed the institutional forces as the underpinning mechanism which explains the relationship between family business exposure and EIs.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Sharjeel Saleem and Beenish Qamar

It is believed that dissatisfied employees are more likely to leave, but research shows that satisfied employees also do not necessarily stay. It is important to…

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Abstract

Purpose

It is believed that dissatisfied employees are more likely to leave, but research shows that satisfied employees also do not necessarily stay. It is important to understand why employees leave. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the antecedents of turnover intention and job hopping, simultaneously, in Pakistani universities. It investigates the impact of perceived alternative employment, job satisfaction and job involvement on turnover intention and job hopping behavior, with organizational commitment as a mediator.

Design/methodology/approach

The variables were measured through established questionnaires and the results were analyzed through structural equation modeling on a sample of 250 faculty members from both public and private universities.

Findings

Results revealed that faculty members do not intend to leave or hop jobs if they are satisfied with their jobs and this relationship is mediated by organizational commitment. Perceived alternative employment also showed a positive relationship with employees’ intentions to quit; while faculty members would job hop, if not satisfied, despite lacking substantial alternative employment opportunities.

Practical implications

Research reveals that employee retention, even in developing countries, is not just about money. Rather, the satisfaction that a person gets from his/her job or the environment in which the employee works serves as a significant antecedent of employee retention. Thus, accordingly some well-planned perks and rewards can serve as a source of extrinsic as well as intrinsic motivators.

Originality/value

This study has investigated the impact of job satisfaction, job involvement, perceived alternative employment, organizational commitment, turnover intention and job hopping along with the dimensions of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in a simultaneous manner through structural equation modeling. It will correspondingly add worth to the discussion in the literature about reasons of employee turnover and job hopping behavior within the specific context of Pakistani universities because there are no official statistics available regarding the number of faculty members leaving or job hopping among various universities. In addition, not much work has been done in this regard, therefore, it shall also provide the basis for future research studies.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Sharjeel Saleem, Asia Rafiq and Saquib Yusaf

The purpose of this paper is to identify hurdles in women’s rise up the organizational ladder through the epistemic concept of the glass ceiling phenomenon. The secondary…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify hurdles in women’s rise up the organizational ladder through the epistemic concept of the glass ceiling phenomenon. The secondary aim is to determine how the glass ceiling effect results in women’s failure to secure equal representation in high-ranking executive positions in comparison to males. The study intends to come up with empirical evidences to advance plausible justifications and support for the organizations to manage their workforce with the sense of egalitarianism.

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire is administered to a sample of 210 respondents including CEOs, directors, managers, assistants, accountants, doctors and teachers from public and private sectors. The variables that influence the glass ceiling phenomenon are gender (female) represented on the board of directors (BODs), stereotypical behavior and training and development of females to measure the glass ceiling effect. Further, this influence is examined regarding the selection and promotion of the females as candidates, as well as female effectiveness at work. To verify the glass ceiling phenomenon, multiple linear regression analyses with the ordinary least square method are used.

Findings

Drawing on the perspective of the social role theory, the authors identify plausible causes of the glass ceiling phenomenon in the Asian context. The results show the presence of glass ceiling, particularly characterizing its effects on the selection and promotion of the female candidates and their effectiveness. The authors found that glass ceiling was negatively related to both female effectiveness and “selection and promotion.” It was also identified that research variables such as lesser women’s representation on the BODs, training and development and stereotypical attitude toward women promote glass ceiling.

Research limitations/implications

The larger sample and data collection from different cultures would have assured more generalizability. The glass ceiling is affected by numerous variables; other factors can also be explored.

Practical implications

Organizations must consider competitive females in their selection and promotion decision making. Asian countries, especially developing countries such as Pakistan, need to develop policies to encourage active participation of the female workforce in upper echelon. The equal employment policies will reduce the dependency ratio of females, consequently driving the country’s economic growth.

Social implications

Societies need to change their stereotype attitudes toward women and encourage them to use their potential to benefit societies by shattering glass ceilings that continue to place women at a disadvantage. Developing a social culture that advances women empowerment will contribute to social and infrastructure development in Asian countries.

Originality/value

This paper adds a thought-provoking attitude of organizations in South Asia, especially in Pakistani societies that play a role in creating a glass ceiling, more so to shatter it even in 2016. This study compels firms in Pakistan and other Asian regions to use unbiased practices by investigating the impact of glass ceiling on female effectiveness that has not previously been conducted in the Asian context. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the study of glass ceiling in Pakistani context is first in the literature.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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