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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Julia A. Fehrer, Sabine Benoit, Lerzan Aksoy, Thomas L. Baker, Simon J. Bell, Roderick J. Brodie and Malliga Marimuthu

The collaborative economy (CE), and within it, collaborative consumption (CC) has become a central element of the global economy and has substantially disrupted service…

Abstract

Purpose

The collaborative economy (CE), and within it, collaborative consumption (CC) has become a central element of the global economy and has substantially disrupted service markets (e.g. accommodation and individual transportation). The purpose of this paper is to explore the trends and develop future scenarios for market structures in the CE. This allows service providers and public policy makers to better prepare for potential future disruption.

Design/methodology/approach

Thought experiments – theoretically grounded in population ecology (PE) – are used to extrapolate future scenarios beyond the boundaries of existing observations.

Findings

The patterns suggested by PE forecast developmental trajectories of CE leading to one of the following three future scenarios of market structures: the centrally orchestrated CE, the social bubbles CE, and the decentralized autonomous CE.

Research limitations/implications

The purpose of this research was to create CE future scenarios in 2050 to stretch one’s consideration of possible futures. What unfolds in the next decade and beyond could be similar, a variation of or entirely different than those described.

Social implications

Public policy makers need to consider how regulations – often designed for a time when existing technologies were inconceivable – can remain relevant for the developing CE. This research reveals challenges including distribution of power, insularity, and social compensation mechanisms that need consideration across states and national borders.

Originality/value

This research tests the robustness of assumptions used today for significant, plausible market changes in the future. It provides considerable value in exploring challenges for public policy given the broad societal, economic, and political implications of the present market predictions.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2004

Giancarlo Giudici and Peter Roosenboom

In this chapter we investigate whether the pricing of IPOs on Europe’s new stock market differs from that of IPOs on main market segments. We report a 22.3 percentage…

Abstract

In this chapter we investigate whether the pricing of IPOs on Europe’s new stock market differs from that of IPOs on main market segments. We report a 22.3 percentage point difference in the average first-day return of new market IPOs (34.3%) and the average first-day return of main market IPOs (12%). We show that reduced incentives to control wealth losses and different firm and offer characteristics partially explain the higher average first-day return on new market segments. We also find that the bundling of IPO deals has been more important to control underpricing costs on new market than on main market segments.

Details

The Rise and Fall of Europe's New Stock Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-137-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Z.Y. Sacho and H.C. Wingard

This paper investigates the debate as to whether employee share options (ESOs) should be expensed in an entity’s financial statements as required by the IASB’s IFRS 2 …

Abstract

This paper investigates the debate as to whether employee share options (ESOs) should be expensed in an entity’s financial statements as required by the IASB’s IFRS 2 – Share‐based payment (2004). The paper presents arguments for and against expensing ESOs, demonstrating that compensation of employees via ESOs is a bona fide expense in terms of the recognition and measurement criteria of the IASB Framework. It concludes that, the substance of an ESO transaction is that the entity pays an employee for his services, albeit with a different financial instrument. Consequently, the accounting treatment of such compensation should be the same as for any other payment of services of an employee.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Jane Davison

The purpose of this paper is to add to theoretical and empirical work on the rhetoric of narratives and pictures in annual reporting by using the lens of repetition to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to add to theoretical and empirical work on the rhetoric of narratives and pictures in annual reporting by using the lens of repetition to examine the Annual Reviews of British Telecommunications (BT) plc.

Design/methodology/approach

The study constructs a conceptual framework of repetition in signifiants (from rhetoric) and signifiés (from philosophy, notably Barthes, Deleuze, Eliade and Jankélévitch). Signifiants are established by reference to rhetorical figures based in repetition: anadiplosis, anaphora, alliteration/rhyme and lists. Signifiés are indicated as conscious rhetorical emphasis, and unconscious reflections of sameness and difference; networks and links; and, of particular interest during the “dot.com” years, exuberance and compulsion; differentiation, ritual and reassurance. The framework is used to analyse BT plc's Annual Reviews from 1996‐2001.

Findings

The application of the framework is enlightening: repetition is shown to be prevalent in BT plc's Annual Reviews, especially during the “dot.com” years. Repetition emphasises BT plc's intangible assets; less consciously, repetition reflects BT plc's corporate identity and its participation in the “dot.com” era.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides a model which may be applied to the wealth of discretionary narratives and pictures in contemporary annual reporting. It would also benefit from the assessment of readership impact.

Practical implications

The analysis is of interest to accounting researchers, practitioners, trainees, auditors and any user of accounting and accountability statements. It illuminates the way in which discretionary words and pictures highlight and supplement accounting information.

Originality/value

The paper augments theoretical and empirical work on the significance of narratives and pictures in accounting.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Attiya Waris and Laila Abdul Latif

The article aims to rely on the global wealth chains theory to study the effect of tax amnesty on anti-money laundering (AML) in Bangladesh. This theory is an analytical…

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to rely on the global wealth chains theory to study the effect of tax amnesty on anti-money laundering (AML) in Bangladesh. This theory is an analytical framework intended to identify how wealth is repackaged and disguised to move it out of spheres of state oversight, regulation and taxation. It introduces the law on AML in Bangladesh, pointing out the revised Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendation that has expanded the scope of money laundering predicate offences to cover both indirect and direct tax crimes and smuggling in relation to customs and excise duties and taxes.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews in Bangladesh and desk research.

Findings

There are some gaps in the scope of the offence, the coverage of predicate offences and the types of property covered by the money laundering offence. There is also an absence of financial penalties available to effectively sanction legal persons. The current money laundering offences are derived from the ordinance issued in 2008 by the caretaker government (2006-2008). The current act contains detailed definitions of money laundering and property and a list of predicate offences and sanctions for the offence. However, there are some gaps in the physical elements of the offence, and the range of its predicate offences remains too narrow. Adding tax evasion to its list of predicate offences will, given the history of money laundering in Bangladesh, aid in combating illegal transfer of assets abroad and recovery of the same and abolish tax amnesty.

Originality/value

There is no paper that has analysed the linkages between money laundering and taxation in developing countries, especially Bangladesh.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

James S. Ang, Alireza Tourani‐Rad and Jean C. Yu

In this paper we provide an in‐depth comparative analysis of the shares of listed firms in three Southeast Asian stock markets, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand…

Abstract

In this paper we provide an in‐depth comparative analysis of the shares of listed firms in three Southeast Asian stock markets, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, that had experienced the most violent fluctuations in the 1997 market crash. Our purpose is to present broad lessons from the experiences of these countries that could be helpful to understand the behavior of stock markets under severe financial crisis. Several new results are found: (1) There were local price bubbles prior to the market crash in each country. (2) Price momentum may have contributed to the share price increase prior to the crash but not during the period of crisis or the market reversal. (3) The price bubbles in these countries were mainly among the most liquid and most volatile shares. (4) Asset liquidity was found to cause returns to behave differently in quiet versus extraordinary period.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Thomas H. Thompson

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive initial evaluation of the changing issuer objective and partial price adjustment hypotheses as applied to carve‐out…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive initial evaluation of the changing issuer objective and partial price adjustment hypotheses as applied to carve‐out parent initial and three‐year returns for the period 1988‐2006.

Design/methodology/approach

Using five primary variables: the percentage of the subsidiary retained by the parent, the ratio of offering size to parent market capitalization, filing range adjustments, the percentage of the offering used to retire subsidiary debt or to pay dividends, and the CBOE volatility index to predict initial and three‐year returns, the paper shows that ex ante variables can predict carve‐out parent initial and three‐year returns.

Findings

The paper shows that public information known prior to the offer date influences 7.52 percent of the variation in announcement, 5.57‐38.31 percent of the variation in ex‐date and 6 percent of the variation in three‐year market‐adjusted equity carve‐out parent returns.

Originality/value

This study makes several contributions to the literature. Although prior studies focus on ex post determinants of equity carve‐out returns, this study is the first to explore ex ante predictors of equity carve‐out parent returns. The implications of these results are that publicly available information known prior to the carve‐out offering date can influence market‐adjusted initial and three‐year parent carve‐out returns and can explain 6‐17 percent of the variation.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 37 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Lucy F. Ackert, Li Qi and Wenbo Zou

This study aims to report on experimental asset markets designed to examine the impact of a levy on trade, as well as the taxation authority’s ability to raise tax revenue…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to report on experimental asset markets designed to examine the impact of a levy on trade, as well as the taxation authority’s ability to raise tax revenue when markets are subject to mispricing. Some have suggested that a transaction tax will discourage irrational speculation and lead to more efficient markets, but others argue that a higher cost of trading will prove to be an impediment to trade with no useful outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ goal is to provide insight on the impact of a transaction tax in a very specific asset market. The authors chose this design because the robustness of the bubble and crash pattern points to an environment that is particularly appropriate for the study of the effectiveness of a transaction tax in promoting efficient pricing. Furthermore, in a laboratory, the authors can control for extraneous factors that are problematic in the study of naturally occurring environments.

Findings

The authors examine whether a securities transaction tax promotes efficiency in markets that are prone to mispricing and find little evidence that a tax on trade will reduce speculation.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s experimental environment is, of course, an abstraction of naturally occurring markets and it may be that the model excludes important aspects.

Social implications

The authors find that a tax on financial transactions allows the taxation authority to raise significant revenue with little impact on pricing or trading volume.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first systematic examination of a transaction tax on outcomes in a market that is prone to mispricing.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Robert Hull, Rosemary Walker and Sungkyu Kwak

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of R&D manipulation on stock valuation for periods around IPOs. Insider manipulation is the difference in actual R&D…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of R&D manipulation on stock valuation for periods around IPOs. Insider manipulation is the difference in actual R&D change minus predicted R&D change where a negative difference indicates R&D underinvestment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is designed to build on prior IPO research that has found reduced R&D expenditures when insiders lower their ownership. The paper derives an R&D manipulation variable that measures underinvestment in R&D. This variable is used in a regression methodology to test its influence on: IPO stock valuation at various points in time and post‐IPO price changes relative to the offer price.

Findings

The paper discovers that greater underinvestment in R&D is associated with greater values during the IPO stock valuation process. This association is reversed when the paper looks at short‐term valuation based on market prices. Only for bubble period IPOs do the paper finds poorer valuations for the long‐term. Larger insider ownership decreases lead to poorer valuations regardless of the period of occurrence. Greater R&D underinvestment and insider ownership decreases both lead to less underpricing.

Research limitations/implications

Like prior research, the paper assumes that knowledge about the change in R&D is known at the time of the offering. Interpretations for long‐run results can be tenuous due to unexpected changes that occur over time.

Practical implications

Investors should note that managers are able to set higher offer prices when they inflate earnings by underinvesting in R&D. Buying at an inflated offer price with R&D manipulation leads to losses in the aftermarket with these losses associated with IPOs that occur during a bubble period.

Social implications

Misrepresentation during the IPO valuation process affects those who buy shares at inflated prices. This raises ethical questions about the behavior of those involved in the issuance process.

Originality/value

This study is unique in testing how R&D manipulation and changes in insider ownership proportions impact the: IPO valuation process, post‐IPO valuation, and changes in the stock price over time relative to the offer price.

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2004

Michiel Botman, Peter Roosenboom and Tjalling van der Goot

This chapter investigates the relevance of accounting and other information to valuing Internet IPOs during the years 1998–2000 in Europe and the United States. We show…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the relevance of accounting and other information to valuing Internet IPOs during the years 1998–2000 in Europe and the United States. We show that market value is negatively related to net income in the Internet bubble period before April 1, 2000 in both European and U.S. IPO markets. This is consistent with an Internet firm’s start-up expenditures being considered as assets, not as costs. Furthermore, for the U.S. IPO market, we find that free float is value relevant during the Internet bubble. Underwriters and issuers restricted the supply of shares at the IPO. This drove up market prices as investors were keen to buy Internet IPO shares.

Details

The Rise and Fall of Europe's New Stock Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-137-8

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