Search results

1 – 10 of over 14000
Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Michiel H. Straathof, Giampietro Carpentieri and Michel J.L. van Tooren

An aerodynamic shape optimization algorithm is presented, which includes all aspects of the design process: parameterization, flow computation and optimization. The…

Abstract

Purpose

An aerodynamic shape optimization algorithm is presented, which includes all aspects of the design process: parameterization, flow computation and optimization. The purpose of this paper is to show that the Class‐Shape‐Refinement‐Transformation method in combination with an Euler/adjoint solver provides an efficient and intuitive way of optimizing aircraft shapes.

Design/methodology/approach

The Class‐Shape‐Transformation method was used to parameterize the aircraft shape and the flow was computed using an in‐house Euler code. An adjoint solver implemented into the Euler code was used to compute the required gradients and a trust‐region reflective algorithm was employed to perform the actual optimization.

Findings

The results of two aerodynamic shape optimization test cases are presented. Both cases used a blended‐wing‐body reference geometry as their initial input. It was shown that using a two‐step approach, a considerable improvement of the lift‐to‐drag ratio in the order of 20‐30 per cent could be achieved. The work presented in this paper proves that the CSRT method is a very intuitive and effective way of parameterizating aircraft shapes. It was also shown that using an adjoint algorithm provides the computational efficiency necessary to perform true three‐dimensional shape optimization.

Originality/value

The novelty of the algorithm lies in the use of the Class‐Shape‐Refinement‐Transformation method for parameterization and its coupling to the Euler and adjoint codes.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Mani Sekaran Santhanakrishnan, Tim Tilford and Chris Bailey

The purpose of the study is to optimise the cross-sectional shape of passively cooled horizontally mounted pin-fin heat sink for higher cooling performance and lower…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to optimise the cross-sectional shape of passively cooled horizontally mounted pin-fin heat sink for higher cooling performance and lower material usage.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi-objective shape optimisation technique is used to design the heat sink fins. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is combined with a geometric module to develop the shape optimiser. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to evaluate the design objectives. Separate optimisations are carried out to design the shape of bottom row fins and middle row fins of a pin-fin heat sink. Finally, a computational validation was conducted by generating a three-dimensional pin-fin heat sink using optimised fin cross sections and comparing its performance against the circular pin-fin heat sink with the same inter-fin spacing value.

Findings

Heat sink with optimised fin cross sections has 1.6% higher cooling effectiveness than circular pin-fin heat sink of same material volume, and has 10.3% higher cooling effectiveness than the pin-fin heat sink of same characteristics fin dimension. The special geometric features of optimised fins that resulted in superior performance are highlighted. Further, Pareto-optimal fronts for this multi-objective optimisation problem are obtained for different fin design scenarios.

Originality/value

For the first time, passively cooled heat sink’s cross-sectional shapes are optimised for different spatial arrangements, using NSGA-II-based shape optimiser, which makes use of CFD solver to evaluate the design objectives. The optimised, high-performance shapes will find direct application to cool power electronic equipment.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

E. HINTON, N.V.R. RAO and J. SIENZ

This paper deals with structural shape and thickness optimization of axisymmetric shell structures loaded symmetrically. In the finite element stress analysis use is made…

Abstract

This paper deals with structural shape and thickness optimization of axisymmetric shell structures loaded symmetrically. In the finite element stress analysis use is made of newly developed linear, quadratic, and cubic, variable thickness, C(0) elements based on axisymmetric Mindlin‐Reissner shell theory. An integrated approach is used to carry out the whole shape optimization process in a fully automatic manner. A robust, versatile and flexible mesh generator is incorporated with facilities for generating either uniform or graded meshes, with constant, linear, or cubic variation of thickness, pressure etc. The midsurface geometry and thickness variations of the axisymmetric shell structure are defined using cubic splines passing through certain key points. The design variables are chosen as the coordinates and/or the thickness at the key points. Variable linking procedures are also included. Sensitivity analysis is carried out using either a semi‐analytical method or a global finite difference method. The objective of the optimization is the weight minimization of the structure. Several examples are presented illustrating optimal shapes and thickness distributions for various shells. The changes in the bending, membrane and shear strain energies during the optimization process are also monitored.

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

R. Balamurugan, C.V. Ramakrishnan and N. Swaminathan

The structural design problem can be viewed as an iterative design loop with each iteration involving two stages for topology and shape designs with genetic algorithm (GA…

Abstract

Purpose

The structural design problem can be viewed as an iterative design loop with each iteration involving two stages for topology and shape designs with genetic algorithm (GA) as the optimization tool for both.

Design/methodology/approach

The topology optimization problem, which is ill posed, is regularized using a constraint on perimeter and solved using GA. The problem is formulated as one of compliance minimization subject to volume constraint for the single loading case. A dual formulation of this has been used for the multiple loading cases resulting in as many behavioral constraints as there are loading cases. The tentative topology given by the topology optimization module is taken and the domain boundary is approximated using straight lines, B‐splines and cubic spline curves and design variables are selected among the boundary defining points. Optimum boundary shape of the problem has been obtained using GA in two different ways: without stress constraints; and with stress constraints.

Findings

The proposed two stage strategy has been tested on benchmark structural optimization problems and its performance is found to be extremely good.

Practical implications

The strategy appears to be eminently suitable for implementation in a general purpose FE software as an add‐on module for structural design optimization.

Originality/value

It has been observed that the integrated topology and shape design method is robust and easy to implement in comparison with other techniques. The computing time requirements for the GA does not appear daunting in the present scenario of high performance parallel computing and improved GA techniques.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Eero Immonen

This paper aims to design an optimal shape for an annular S-duct, considering both energy losses and exit flow uniformity, starting from a given baseline design. Moreover…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to design an optimal shape for an annular S-duct, considering both energy losses and exit flow uniformity, starting from a given baseline design. Moreover, this paper seeks to identify the design factors that affect the optimal annular S-duct designs.

Design/methodology/approach

The author has carried out computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-based shape optimization relative to five distinct numerical objectives, to understand their interrelations in optimal designs. Starting from a given baseline S-duct design, they have applied control node-induced shape deformations and high-order polynomial response surfaces for modeling the functional relationships between the shape variables and the numerical objectives. A statistical correlation analysis is carried out across the optimal designs.

Findings

The author has shown by single-objective optimization that the two typical goals in S-duct design, energy loss minimization and exit flow uniformity, are mutually contradictory. He has presented a multi-objective solution for an optimal shape, reducing the total pressure loss by 15.6 per cent and the normalized absolute radial exit velocity by 34.2 per cent relative to a baseline design. For each of the five numerical objectives, the best optimization results are obtained by using high-order polynomial models.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology is applicable to axisymmetric two-dimensional geometry models.

Originality/value

This paper applies a recently introduced shape optimization methodology to annular S-ducts, and, it is, to the author’s knowledge, the first paper to point out that the two widely studied design objectives for annular S-ducts are contradictory. This paper also addresses the value of using high-order polynomial response surface models in CFD-based shape optimization.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

M. Vázquez, A. Dervieux and B. Koobus

To propose an integrated algorithm for aerodynamic shape optimization of aircraft wings under the effect of aeroelastic deformations at supersonic regime.

Abstract

Purpose

To propose an integrated algorithm for aerodynamic shape optimization of aircraft wings under the effect of aeroelastic deformations at supersonic regime.

Design/methodology/approach

A methodology is proposed in which a high‐fidelity aeroelastic analyser and an aerodynamic optimizer are loosely coupled. The shape optimizer is based on a “CAD‐free” approach and an exact gradient method with a single adjoint state. The global iterative process yields optimal shapes in the at‐rest condition (i.e. with the aeroelastic deformations substracted).

Findings

The methodology was tested under different conditions, taking into account a combined optimization goal: to reduce the sonic boom production, while preserving the aerodynamic performances of flexible wings. The objective function model contains both aerodynamic parameters and an acoustic term based on the sonic boom downwards emission.

Practical implications

This paper proposes a shape optimization methodology developed by researchers but aiming at the final strategic goal of creating tools that can be really integrated in design processes.

Originality/value

The paper presents an original loosely coupled method for the shape optimization of flexible wings in which recent and modern techniques are used at different levels of the global algorithm: the aerodynamic optimizer, the aeroelastic analyser, the shape parametrization and the objective function model.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

M. Grujicic, G. Arakere, P. Pisu, B. Ayalew, Norbert Seyr, Marc Erdmann and Jochen Holzleitner

Application of the engineering design optimization methods and tools to the design of automotive body‐in‐white (BIW) structural components made of polymer metal hybrid…

472

Abstract

Application of the engineering design optimization methods and tools to the design of automotive body‐in‐white (BIW) structural components made of polymer metal hybrid (PMH) materials is considered. Specifically, the use of topology optimization in identifying the optimal initial designs and the use of size and shape optimization techniques in defining the final designs is discussed. The optimization analyses employed were required to account for the fact that the BIW structural PMH component in question may be subjected to different in‐service loads be designed for stiffness, strength or buckling resistance and that it must be manufacturable using conventional injection over‐molding. The paper demonstrates the use of various engineering tools, i.e. a CAD program to create the solid model of the PMH component, a meshing program to ensure mesh matching across the polymer/metal interfaces, a linear‐static analysis based topology optimization tool to generate an initial design, a nonlinear statics‐based size and shape optimization program to obtained the final design and a mold‐filling simulation tool to validate manufacturability of the PMH component.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Srinivas Vasista, Alessandro De Gaspari, Sergio Ricci, Johannes Riemenschneider, Hans Peter Monner and Bram van de Kamp

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the design and experimental work of compliant wing and wingtip morphing devices conducted within the EU FP7 project…

878

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the design and experimental work of compliant wing and wingtip morphing devices conducted within the EU FP7 project NOVEMOR and to demonstrate that the optimization tools developed can be used to synthesize compliant morphing devices.

Design/methodology/approach

The compliant morphing devices were “designed-through-optimization”, with the optimization algorithms including Simplex optimization for composite compliant skin design, aerodynamic shape optimization able to take into account the structural behaviour of the morphing skin, continuum-based and load path representation topology optimization methods and multi-objective optimization coupled with genetic algorithm for compliant internal substructure design. Low-speed subsonic wind tunnel testing was performed as an effective means of demonstrating proof-of-concept.

Findings

It was found that the optimization tools could be successfully implemented in the manufacture and testing stage. Preliminary insight into the performance of the compliant structure has been made during the first wind tunnel tests.

Practical implications

The tools in this work further the development of morphing structures, which when implemented in aircraft have potential implications to environmentally friendlier aircrafts.

Originality/value

The key innovations in this paper include the development of a composite skin optimization tool for the design of highly 3D morphing wings and its ensuing manufacture process; the development of a continuum-based topology optimization tool for shape control design of compliant mechanisms considering the stiffness and displacement functions; the use of a superelastic material for the compliant mechanism; and wind tunnel validation of morphing wing devices based on compliant structure technology.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 88 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

P.Di Barba

Introduces papers from this area of expertise from the ISEF 1999 Proceedings. States the goal herein is one of identifying devices or systems able to provide prescribed…

Abstract

Introduces papers from this area of expertise from the ISEF 1999 Proceedings. States the goal herein is one of identifying devices or systems able to provide prescribed performance. Notes that 18 papers from the Symposium are grouped in the area of automated optimal design. Describes the main challenges that condition computational electromagnetism’s future development. Concludes by itemizing the range of applications from small activators to optimization of induction heating systems in this third chapter.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Antonio Campo and Mark D. Landon

A detailed review of the archival literature on: fluid dynamics, heat transfer and shape optimization reveals that the optimal shape of natural convective cavities has not…

Abstract

A detailed review of the archival literature on: fluid dynamics, heat transfer and shape optimization reveals that the optimal shape of natural convective cavities has not been investigated so far, and of course, its physical features are not understood. A prominent application of cavities cooled by natural convection arises in the miniaturization of electronic packaging where some type of temperature constraint must be applied at the directly heated wall. This contemporary issue has been addressed in the present work in an elegant manner by linking a code on computational fluid dynamics with a shape optimization code. Once the velocity and temperature fields were accurately computed for an initial cavity with a certain heat load, a two‐step optimization procedure was implemented in a methodical fashion. A first optimization sub‐problem transformed a square cavity into a rectangular cavity, while the second optimization sub‐problem sculpted the shape of the upper horizontal insulated wall in order to bring down the maximum wall temperature of the directly heated vertical wall, i.e. the so‐called “hot spot”. A bird's eye inspection of the numerical results revealed that the first optimization sub‐problem produced a significant reduction in area (volume), while raising the maximum wall temperature of the heated vertical wall by a small amount. The second optimization sub‐problem supplied a remarkable decrease in the maximum wall temperature of the heated vertical wall, carrying with it a moderate increase in area (volume). At the end, the optimal shape of the cavity turns out to be a disfigured vertical rectangular cavity in which the upper insulated wall forming a parabolic‐skewed cap.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 14000