Search results

1 – 10 of over 35000
Article
Publication date: 3 September 2021

G. Jaffino and J. Prabin Jose

Forensic dentistry is the application of dentistry in legal proceedings that arise from any facts relating to teeth. The ultimate goal of forensic odontology is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Forensic dentistry is the application of dentistry in legal proceedings that arise from any facts relating to teeth. The ultimate goal of forensic odontology is to identify the individual when there are no other means of identification such as fingerprint, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), iris, hand print and leg print. The purpose of selecting dental record is for the teeth to be able to withstand decomposition, heat degradation up to 1600 °C. Dental patterns are unique for every individual. This work aims to analyze the contour shape extraction and texture feature extraction of both radiographic and photographic dental images for person identification.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve an accurate identification of individuals, the missing tooth in the radiograph has to be identified before matching of ante-mortem (AM) and post-mortem (PM) radiographs. To identify whether the missing tooth is a molar or premolar, each tooth in the given radiograph has to be classified using a k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier; then, it is matched with the universal tooth numbering system. In order to make exact person identification, this research work is mainly concentrate on contour shape extraction and texture feature extraction for person identification. This work aims to analyze the contour shape extraction and texture feature extraction of both radiographic and photographic images for individual identification. Then, shape matching of AM and PM images is performed by similarity and distance metric for accurate person identification.

Findings

The experimental results are analyzed for shape and feature extraction of both radiographic and photographic dental images. From this analysis, it is proved that the higher hit rate performance is observed for the active contour shape extraction model, and it is well suited for forensic odontologists to identify a person in mass disaster situations.

Research limitations/implications

Forensic odontology is a branch of human identification that uses dental evidence to identify the victims. In mass disaster circumstances, contours and dental patterns are very useful to extract the shape in individual identification.

Originality/value

The experimental results are analyzed both the contour shape extraction and texture feature extraction of both radiographic and photographic images. From this analysis, it is proved that the higher hit rate performance is observed for the active contour shape extraction model and it is well suited for forensic odontologists to identify a person in mass disaster situations. The findings provide theoretical and practical implications for individual identification of both radiographic and photographic images with a view to accurate identification of the person.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Jingbin Hao, Xin Chen, Hao Liu and Shengping Ye

To remanufacture a disused part, a hybrid process needs to be taken in part production. Therefore, a reasonable machining route is necessary to be developed for the hybrid…

Abstract

Purpose

To remanufacture a disused part, a hybrid process needs to be taken in part production. Therefore, a reasonable machining route is necessary to be developed for the hybrid process. This paper aims to develop a novel process planning algorithm for additive and subtractive manufacturing (ASM) system to achieve this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a skeleton of the model is generated by using thinning algorithm. Then, the skeleton tree is constructed based on topological structure and shape feature. Further, a feature matching algorithm is developed for recognizing the different features between the initial model and the final model based on the skeleton tree. Finally, a reasonable hybrid machining route of the ASM system is generated in consideration of the machining method of each different sub-feature.

Findings

This paper proposes a hybrid process planning algorithm for the ASM system. Further, it generates new process planning insights on the hybrid process service provider market.

Practical implications

The proposed process planning algorithm enables engineers to obtain a proper hybrid machining route before product fabrication. And thereby, it extends the machining capability of the hybrid process to manufacture some parts accurately and efficiently.

Originality/value

This study addresses one gap in the hybrid process literature. It develops the first hybrid process planning strategy for remanufacturing of disused parts based on skeleton tree matching, which generates a more proper hybrid machining route than the currently available hybrid strategy studies. Also, this study provides technical support for the ASM system to repair damaged parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Hanxiang Xu, Shihui Guo, Junfeng Yao and Nadia Magnenat Thalmann

In the process of robot shell design, it is necessary to match the shape of the input 3D original character mesh model and robot endoskeleton, in order to make the input…

Abstract

Purpose

In the process of robot shell design, it is necessary to match the shape of the input 3D original character mesh model and robot endoskeleton, in order to make the input model fit for robot and avoid collision. So, the purpose of this paper is to find an object of reference, which can be used for the process of shape matching.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the authors propose an interior bounded box (IBB) approach that derives from oriented bounding box (OBB). This kind of box is inside the closed mesh model. At the same time, it has maximum volume which is aligned with the object axis but is enclosed by all the mesh vertices. Based on the IBB of input mesh model and the OBB of robot endoskeleton, the authors can complete the process of shape matching. In this paper, the authors use an evolutionary algorithm, covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES), to approximate the IBB based on skeleton and symmetry of input character mesh model.

Findings

Based on the evolutionary algorithm CMA-ES, the optimal position and scale information of IBB can be found. The authors can obtain satisfactory IBB result after this optimization process. The output IBB has maximum volume and is enveloped by the input character mesh model as well.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, the IBB is first proposed and used in the field of robot shell design. Taking advantage of the IBB, people can quickly obtain a shell model that fit for robot. At the same time, it can avoid collision between shell model and the robot endoskeleton.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Chen Guodong, Zeyang Xia, Rongchuan Sun, Zhenhua Wang and Lining Sun

Detecting objects in images and videos is a difficult task that has challenged the field of computer vision. Most of the algorithms for object detection are sensitive to…

Abstract

Purpose

Detecting objects in images and videos is a difficult task that has challenged the field of computer vision. Most of the algorithms for object detection are sensitive to background clutter and occlusion, and cannot localize the edge of the object. An object's shape is typically the most discriminative cue for its recognition by humans. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a model‐based object detection method which uses only shape‐fragment features.

Design/methodology/approach

The object shape model is learned from a small set of training images and all object models are composed of shape fragments. The model of the object is in multi‐scales.

Findings

The major contributions of this paper are the application of learned shape fragments‐based model for object detection in complex environment and a novel two‐stage object detection framework.

Originality/value

The results presented in this paper are competitive with other state‐of‐the‐art object detection methods.

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Tony Cawkell

The Web of Science (WoS) database has been intro‐duced recently by The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), but no applications of it have yet been described as far…

Abstract

The Web of Science (WoS) database has been intro‐duced recently by The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), but no applications of it have yet been described as far as I am aware. It is compiled from 8,000 journals providing some 130,000 articles annually, covered in the combined Science (1974 onwards), Social Sciences (1972 onwards) and Arts & Humanities (1975 onwards) Citation Indexes. New journals continue to be added. At present the storage requirements for this data is about 11.5 Gbytes.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Jaewoong Lee and InHwan Sul

As an extended work of the previous paper (Sul, 2010), this paper provides a guideline information for an anonymous garment pattern in sewing process. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

As an extended work of the previous paper (Sul, 2010), this paper provides a guideline information for an anonymous garment pattern in sewing process. The purpose of this paper is to first, provide garment pattern database. By simply taking pictures of garment patterns, the shape database is constructed. Once the shape database is prepared, data retrieval can be done by image indexing, i.e., simply inserting garment pattern boundary shape again to the database. Using shock graph methodology, the pattern sets used for database preparation can be exactly retrieved. Second, to find the nearest shape of a given input pattern shape in the database. If the input garment pattern shape does not exist in the database, the shape matching algorithm provides the next similar pattern data. The user, who is assumed to be non-expert in garment sewing process, can easily predict the position and combination information of various patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

Image processing is used to construct the garment pattern shape database. The boundary shapes are extracted from the photographs of garment patterns and their shape recognition information, especially shock graph, is also recorded for later pattern data retrieval.

Findings

Using the image processing technique, garment patterns can be converted to electronic format easily. Also the prepared pattern database can be used for finding the nearest shape of an additional given input garment pattern. Patterns with irregular shapes were retrieved easily, while those with a simple shape, such as rectangle, showed a little erroneous result.

Originality/value

Shape recognition has been adopted in various industrial areas, except for garment sewing process. Using the provided methodology, garment pattern shapes can be easily saved and retrieved only by taking pictures of them.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Hu Qiao, Qingyun Wu, Songlin Yu, Jiang Du and Ying Xiang

The purpose of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional (3D) assembly model retrieval method based on assembling semantic information to address semantic mismatches…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional (3D) assembly model retrieval method based on assembling semantic information to address semantic mismatches, poor accuracy and low efficiency in existing 3D assembly model retrieval methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes an assembly model retrieval method. First, assembly information retrieval is performed, and 3D models that conform to the design intention of the assembly are found by retrieving the code. On this basis, because there are conjugate subgraphs between attributed adjacency graphs (AAG) that have an assembly relationship, the assembly model geometric retrieval is translated into a problem of finding AAGs with a conjugate subgraph. Finally, the frequent subgraph mining method is used to retrieve AAGs with conjugate subgraphs.

Findings

The method improved the efficiency and accuracy of assembly model retrieval.

Practical implications

The examples illustrate the specific retrieval process and verify the feasibility and reasonability of the assembly model retrieval method in practical applications.

Originality/value

The assembly model retrieval method in the paper is an original method. Compared with other methods, good results were obtained.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Liu Yaxiong, Li Dichen, Lu Bingheng, He Sanhu and Li Gang

Traditional standard bone substitutes cannot realize the individualized matching for the bones of different patients. In order to make a bone substitute match the shape of…

1170

Abstract

Traditional standard bone substitutes cannot realize the individualized matching for the bones of different patients. In order to make a bone substitute match the shape of a patient's bone easily, a technology based on reverse engineering (RE) and rapid prototyping (RP) is put forward to design and fabricate a customized bone substitute. By RE, the customized bone substitute is designed according to the CT sectional pictures, and the customized localizer is designed to locate the customized bone substitute in the patient's body at the right position. A customized mandible substitute designed and fabricated by RE and RP has been put into clinical use and is discussed in detail. The results confirm that the advantage of RP in the field of bone restoration is that it can fabricate the customized bone substitute rapidly and accurately.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Zuhao Li, Chenyu Wang, Chen Li, Zhonghan Wang, Fan Yang, He Liu, Yanguo Qin and Jincheng Wang

This paper aims to review the latest applications in terms of three-dimensional printed (3DP) metal implants in orthopedics, and, importantly, the design of 3DP metal…

466

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest applications in terms of three-dimensional printed (3DP) metal implants in orthopedics, and, importantly, the design of 3DP metal implants through a series of cases operated at The Second Hospital of Jilin University were presented.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is available to practitioners who are use 3DP implants in orthopedics. This review began with the deficiency of traditional prostheses and basic concepts of 3DP implants. Then, representative 3DP clinical cases were summarized and compared, and the experiences using customized prostheses and directions for future potential development are also shown.

Findings

The results obtained from the follow-up of clinical applications of 3DP implants show that the 3D designed and printed metal implants could exhibit good bone defect matching, quick and safe joint functional rehabilitation as well as saving time in surgery, which achieved high patient satisfaction collectively.

Originality/value

Single center experiences of 3DP metal implants design were shared and the detailed technical points between various regions were compared and analyzed. In conclusion, the 3DP technology is infusive and will present huge potential to reform future orthopedic practice.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

G.S. Aglietti, S.J.I. Walker and A. Kiley

The purpose of this paper is to assess the suitability of various methods for the reduction of a large finite element model (FEM) of satellites to produce models to be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the suitability of various methods for the reduction of a large finite element model (FEM) of satellites to produce models to be used for correlation of the FEM with test results. The robustness of the cross‐orthogonality checks (COC) for the correlation process carried out utilizing the reduced model is investigated, showing its dependence on the number of mode shapes used in the reduction process. Finally the paper investigates the improvement in the robustness of the COC that can be achieved utilizing optimality criteria for the selection of the degrees of freedom (DOF) used for the correlation process.

Design/methodology/approach

A Monte Carlo approach has been used to simulate inaccuracies in the mode shapes (analysis and experimental) of a satellite FEM that are compared during the COC. The sensitivity of the COC to the parameters utilized during the reduction process, i.e. mode shapes and DOFs, is then assessed for different levels of inaccuracy in the mode shapes.

Findings

The System Equivalent Expansion Reduction Process (SEREP) has been identified as a particularly suitable method, with the advantage that a SEREP reduced model has the same eigenvalues and eigenvector of the whole system therefore automatically meeting the criteria on the quality of the reduced model. The inclusion of a high number of mode shapes in the reduction process makes the check very sensitive to minor experimental or modelling inaccuracies. Finally it was shown that utilizing optimality criteria in the selection of the DOFs to carry out the correlation can significantly improve the probability of meeting the COC criteria.

Research limitations/implications

This work is based on the FEM of the satellite Aeolus, and therefore the numerical values obtained in this study are specific for this application. However, this model represents a typical satellite FEM and therefore the trends identified in this work are expected to be generally valid for this type of structure.

Practical implications

The correlation of satellite FEM with test results involves a substantial effort, and it is crucial to avoid failures of the COC due to numerical issues rather than real model inaccuracies. This work shows also how an inappropriate choice of reduction parameters can lead to failure of the COC in cases when there are only very minor differences (e.g. due to minor amount of noise in the results) between analytical and test results. Vice versa, the work also shows how the robustness of the reduced model can be improved.

Originality/value

The paper shows how the robustness of the correlation process for a satellite FEM carried out utilising a SEREP reduced model needed to be investigated, to demonstrate the suitability of this method to reduce large FEM of satellites.

1 – 10 of over 35000