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This paper aims to inform social responsibility and social policy by describing the brand strategy of Australia’s largest tobacco manufacturer, British American Tobacco…
This paper aims to inform social responsibility and social policy by describing the brand strategy of Australia’s largest tobacco manufacturer, British American Tobacco Australia (BATA), the year following the introduction of plain packaging and other regulation. Tobacco controls are a proven catalyst for reducing smoking, but manufacturers adapt swiftly seeking to minimise the impact of regulatory change.
BATA’s strategy was determined using 2012-2014 tobacco ingredient reports, recommended retail price lists and a supermarket retail audit.
The research identified over 70 BATA brand variants, offered in diverse packaging options, with new products and modified names appearing since 2012. In total 14 main brands are highly differentiated by price, with 45 per cent difference between the cheapest and the most expensive. Volume discounting occurs across packaging ranges, with twin packs offering best value and prices up to 10 per cent lower than those of single packs.
The research originality stems from the triangulation of three different data resources to establish brand strategy following increased regulation. The study confirms ongoing market segmentation using highly differentiated ranges, and it reveals the unintended consequences of corporate responses to regulation. Evolving variant names communicate product information and imagery previously imparted by pack design. Pricing strategies enable smokers to offset substantial excise increases through brand switching and volume buying. The research, therefore, reveals the potential for regulating these as yet unrestricted elements to enhance the impact of plain packaging and other tobacco controls, thereby further reducing the social impact of smoking.
The aim of this chapter is to consider the socially responsible aspects generally hidden from researchers by considering examples in the fields of archaeology and…
The aim of this chapter is to consider the socially responsible aspects generally hidden from researchers by considering examples in the fields of archaeology and restoration of cultural and historical places and objects. This chapter is written as a result of practical efforts taken by the first author in the field of restoration through laboratory research and represents findings from experience. The main finding of the research is that the reality of social responsibility has been lost in its defining and needs to be actually observed in practice. This chapter has been written according to research undertaken in Iran as a historical country. More general applications can be developed. The chapter uses the field of archaeology and restoration to take into consideration social responsibility and shows the more general implications of the approach taken. In doing so, it shows the relevance of social responsibility to all walks of life. This chapter is the result of years of practice in the field of restoration and sustainability, and the combined approach taken is unique.
Sustainability is recognised as an important objective in business planning and is of equal relevance to policy makers. It is equally accepted, almost universally, that…
Sustainability is recognised as an important objective in business planning and is of equal relevance to policy makers. It is equally accepted, almost universally, that the resources of the planet are finite and are being overconsumed on an annual basis. The prognosis therefore is that resources are being depleted and competition for access to remaining resources must ensue, increasing the transaction costs of business activity. Given that there are no further resources available to the world, then attention must be paid to the best way of utilising those resources, implying possibly different ways of organising or collaboration. This involves strategic decisions at both local and global levels, and Game theory is recognised as a key strategic tool by policy makers and by business decision-makers. Surprisingly therefore, although it has been recognised that Game theory has relevance to addressing the problems of manufacturing due to resource depletion, no detailed work has been done in this area.
In this chapter the operation of governance in a variety of contexts is shown to be both essential and problematic. Reasons involve contextual and cultural differences as…
In this chapter the operation of governance in a variety of contexts is shown to be both essential and problematic. Reasons involve contextual and cultural differences as well as different understandings. This led to a consideration of the desirability of global governance and the problems in regulating international markets. The relationship of governance with sustainability and with corporate social responsibility is also examined. In doing so this chapter provides an introduction to the volume and sets the scene for the other contributions.
This chapter is concerned with the use of resources in the manufacture of products and services, both at the level of the individual firm and at the level of the market…
This chapter is concerned with the use of resources in the manufacture of products and services, both at the level of the individual firm and at the level of the market and particularly with what happens in an environment of resource depletion and as resources become scarce. The argument is that this is a new environment for the economic systems of the world which has not currently been recognised within economic planning. This new environment needs new approaches and this chapter is concerned with this situation. The aim therefore is to understand this new environment where resources are constrained by their limited availability and to develop strategies and techniques to manage in this environment.
Blockchain technology is an extension of distributed ledger technology and it is used in cryptocurrencies. Many studies describe blockchain technology and cryptocurrency…
Blockchain technology is an extension of distributed ledger technology and it is used in cryptocurrencies. Many studies describe blockchain technology and cryptocurrency is an application of it in a very broad sense. Blockchain technology has several applications. Some of these applications could have direct or indirect relevance to either or both pillars of sustainability advocated by Crowther, Seifi, and Wond (2019). Extending to cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, one possible connection to sustainability may be the reduction of the use of paper for printing currency notes, which can save forests. Furthermore, the growing cryptocurrency market attracted the investors to focus on the price fluctuations but making them forget about the terrifying carbon problem associated with cryptocurrencies. However, this possibility has not been demonstrated anywhere so far. The issue examined here is how blockchain technology can be used for solving sustainability problems. We initiate a qualitative study of the blockchain technology/cryptocurrency and sustainability using the twin pillars of sustainability: (1) responsibility, (2) governance. An exploratory review linking blockchain technology/cryptocurrency and sustainability and its two pillars revealed many actual and trial applications by corporates as CSR initiatives and other novel programs by various agencies in various countries. In governance, corporates use the CSR route to address sustainability issues. However, no definition is an available linking cryptocurrency, blockchain technology, and sustainability and we developed a definition to fill the gap. This paper stresses that the sustainability perspective has not been used to develop the cryptocurrency definition, but rather technological and legal perspectives have employed.