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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Md. Jewel Rana, Md. Rakibul Hasan and Md. Habibur Rahman Sobuz

Application of appropriate shading device strategies in buildings can reduce direct solar heat gain through windows as well as optimize cooling and artificial lighting…

Abstract

Purpose

Application of appropriate shading device strategies in buildings can reduce direct solar heat gain through windows as well as optimize cooling and artificial lighting load. This study investigates the impact of common shading devices such as overhangs, fins, horizontal blinds, vertical blinds and drapes on energy consumption of an office building and suggests energy efficient shading device strategies in the contexts of unique Bangladeshi subtropical monsoon climate.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was performed through the energy simulation perspective of a prototype office building using a validated building energy simulation tool eQUEST. Around 100 simulation patterns were created considering various types of shading devices and building orientations. The simulation results were analysed comprehensively to find out energy-efficient shading device strategies.

Findings

Optimum overhang and fin height is equal to half of the window height in the context of the subtropical climate of Bangladesh. South and West are the most vulnerable orientations, and application of shading devices on these two orientations shows the highest reduction of cooling load and the lowest increment of lighting load. An existing building was able to save approximately 7.05% annual energy consumption by applying the shading device strategies that were suggested by this study.

Originality/value

The shading device strategies of this study can be incorporated into the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) as new energy-efficient building design strategies because the BNBC does not have any codes or regulations regarding energy-efficient shading device. It can also be used as energy-efficient shading device strategies to other Southeast Asian countries with similar climatic contexts of Bangladesh.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Francesco De Luca, Hendrik Voll and Martin Thalfeldt

The purpose of this paper is to constitute an efficient way to improve energy efficiency and occupants comfort in buildings through reduction of direct solar heat gains by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to constitute an efficient way to improve energy efficiency and occupants comfort in buildings through reduction of direct solar heat gains by exterior shading devices. The shadings orientation and layout depends on the building location and façade orientation, and influence consequently the windows layout. It is still debated which type of window layout is preferable for a specific building location and façade orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a method to determine the most efficient windows’ layout, horizontal or vertical, for shading devices optimization by mean of integrating energy simulations and computational design. A parametric model has been built by visual programming language to simulate, iterate and compare the results.

Findings

The research shows the most efficient layouts of windows to be shaded for three latitudes and locations, and the 16 cardinal directions, to be used by architects and designers. The results show a significant prevalence of the horizontal window type on the south façades but also on the east and west orientations for all the three locations, while the rules of thumb would suggest the vertical layout for the sunrise and sunset façades.

Originality/value

The task of designing exterior shading devices presents two main issues: the shading period selection and the method of calculating its size and shape. The present research uses the innovative method Shaderade that existing literature demonstrates superior comparing other more dated like the section method and the solar vectors one.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Francesco De Luca, Hendrik Voll and Martin Thalfeldt

Exterior shading devices and dynamic shading systems constitute an efficient way to improve energy efficiency and occupants’ comfort in buildings through the reduction of…

Abstract

Purpose

Exterior shading devices and dynamic shading systems constitute an efficient way to improve energy efficiency and occupants’ comfort in buildings through the reduction of direct solar heat gains and disturbing glare. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the performance of different types of shading systems, fixed and dynamic, and their influence on the energy consumption and cooling loads for an office building located in Tallinn, Estonia. The scope is to determine the most performative configuration for energy consumption and cooling load reduction for office buildings and to provide designers and developers with the necessary knowledge to increase the performance of their buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

There are many types of fixed shading devices, most of which use rectangular planar elements, the orientation and layout of which depends on the building location and façade orientation. The dynamic shading systems vary on the base of the building occupancy schedules and occupants’ preferences. The paper presents a method to determine the most efficient type and size of fixed shading devices in relation to different windows’ size and orientation, and the quantity of windows panes. At the same time the dynamic shading system using a control algorithm developed by the authors is compared.

Findings

The results show that solar shading is an efficient way to control the energy consumption of office buildings, though with different efficacy by the static systems depending on orientation, window and shading type. Evidence shows that dynamic blind systems have more uniform performance and usually outperform static shading.

Originality/value

The paper compares the performances of different static and dynamic shading devices and systems for the location in Tallinn. The dynamic shading system tested uses a control algorithm developed by the authors. The indications for the energy reduction and cooling loads are a valuable resource for designers and developers to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Yang Wang, Misheng Lin, Ke Xu, Shuyang Zhang and Hongwei Ma

Electrochromic window (ECW) has been gradually applied to building engineering in recent years. However, empirical study of this technology used in green building design…

Abstract

Purpose

Electrochromic window (ECW) has been gradually applied to building engineering in recent years. However, empirical study of this technology used in green building design is still lacking. This study aims to verify the lighting and energy-saving performance of ECW under a specific geographical environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The meditation pavilion of Jinwan new materials research institute in Zhuhai is taken for research object. Three kinds of sun-shading techniques, namely, ECW, Low-E window and ordinary glass window, with same specifications are selected as the building facade structure for simulation. Day lighting analysis, sun-shading performance and annual energy consumption are separately simulated in the same environment by the Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software. The energy-saving performance of ECW is obtained by comparisons.

Findings

Result shows that the shading performance of ECW is much better than ordinary window and Low-E window. When ECW is used in the east, west or top lighting interfaces of a building, about 40% of the total solar radiation can be reduced during daytime in summer. Taking the ordinary glass window as a basic reference, ECW can save about 90% of the annual energy consumption of the glass house. ECW can effectively reduce the annual refrigeration energy consumption of buildings in the subtropical region.

Practical implications

Reasonable use of ECW in the subtropical region can effectively reduce the annual energy consumption of buildings.

Originality/value

It is a precedent study to analyze the lighting performance and energy consumption of a glass house with ECW. The energy-saving characteristics and beautiful appearance of ECW shall make it a future green building technology.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Amneh Hamida, Abdulsalam Alsudairi, Khalid Alshaibani and Othman Alshamrani

Buildings are responsible for the consumption of around 40% of energy in the world and account for one-third of greenhouses gas emissions. In Saudi Arabia, residential…

Abstract

Purpose

Buildings are responsible for the consumption of around 40% of energy in the world and account for one-third of greenhouses gas emissions. In Saudi Arabia, residential buildings consume half of total energy among other building sectors. This study aims to explore the impact of sixteen envelope variables on the operational and embodied carbon of a typical Saudi house with over 20 years of operation.

Design/methodology/approach

A simulation approach has been adopted to examine the effects of envelope variables including external wall type, roof type, glazing type, window to wall ratio (WWR) and shading device. To model the building and define the envelope materials and quantify the annual energy consumption, DesignBuilder software was used. Following modelling, operational carbon was calculated. A “cradle-to-gate” approach was adopted to assess embodied carbon during the production of materials for the envelope variables based on the Inventory of Carbon Energy database.

Findings

The results showed that operational carbon represented 90% of total life cycle carbon, whilst embodied carbon accounted for 10%. The sensitivity analysis revealed that 25% WWR contributes to a significant increase in operational carbon by 47.4%. Additionally, the efficient block wall with marble has a major embodiment of carbon greater than the base case by 10.7%.

Research limitations/implications

This study is a contribution to the field of calculating the embodied and operational carbon emissions of a residential unit. Besides, it provides an examination of the impact of each envelope variable on both embodied and operational carbon. This study is limited by the impact of sixteen envelope variables on the embodied as well as operational carbon.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt on investigating the effects of envelop variables on carbon footprint for residential buildings in Saudi Arabia.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Olufolahan Oduyemi, Michael Iheoma Okoroh and Oluwaseun Samuel Fajana

The purpose of this paper is to explore and rank the benefits and barriers (technological and non-technological) of using Building Information Modelling (BIM) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and rank the benefits and barriers (technological and non-technological) of using Building Information Modelling (BIM) in sustainable building design. It also employs the use of a design tool analysis of a case study using BIM compatible tools (Ecotect and Green Building Studio) to determine the environmental performance of a proposed multi-use building at Derby North.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores the benefits and barriers of using BIM through a literature review. Regression and factor analysis were used to rank these benefits and barriers. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 120 practitioners with 69 completing the survey. Finally, the paper employs the use of a design tool analysis of a case study using BIM-compatible tools (Ecotect and Green Building Studio) to determine the environmental performance of a proposed multi-use building at Derby North riverside.

Findings

The key findings of the statistical analysis indicated that professionals ranked the integrated project delivery as the most established benefit, while the lack of interoperability was ranked the greatest technological challenge. Only three of the attributes of non-technological challenges made statistically unique contributions, namely, training costs and software costs, client demand and potential legal issues. It was also discovered that BIM delivers information needed for environmental performance. In a forward-looking approach, the paper attempts to provide some recommendations that would encourage the continuous application of BIM in sustainable building design.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not cover all features of BIM functionality, as the scope of BIM is very enormous and the resources of this research were limited.

Practical implications

The implication of the study is that it will assist in exploring and ranking the benefits and barriers (technological and non-technological) of using BIM while proffering recommendations for future use. This research will be of interest to industry practitioners and academic researchers with an interest in building information modelling.

Originality/value

This paper contributes with new outlooks aimed at syndicating sustainability with environmental performance and adds to the limited empirical studies on the benefits and barriers of the application of BIM.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Christian Koranteng, Barbara Simons and Kwabena Abrokwa Gyimah

Given the climatic context and economic challenge of Ghana in its developmental strides, energy use of office buildings continues to be a task on the economy. Therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the climatic context and economic challenge of Ghana in its developmental strides, energy use of office buildings continues to be a task on the economy. Therefore, the study was about finding measures that could reduce cooling loads in 10 office buildings. The paper presents the outcome of a long-term study of the thermal conditions in a selected number of office buildings in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Through long-term monitoring of environmental data, the buildings were consequently modelled in a simulation application. Thereafter, a validation of the simulation models (using regression coefficients, r2 of 0.53–0.90) was undertaken towards finding measures to reduce cooling loads.

Findings

The results showed various potentials of efficient lighting, thermal mass, night ventilation, insulation to attic floors, efficient glazing, blind deployments, etc. in reducing cooling loads in the range of 2–17.5%. By combining the potential measures to study their synergistic effects on the loads, 35, 39 and 38% improvements were achieved for the low-rise, multi-storey and fully glazed office buildings.

Originality/value

These potential measures ought to be incorporated in the design, specification, construction and operation of Ghanaian office buildings to reduce the burden on the economy and the environment. Now more than ever, there is the need for climatic regions to come up with empirical data that could help relieve the world's economies from the post-pandemic stress.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Amneh Hamida, Abdulsalam Alsudairi, Khalid Alshaibani and Othman Alshamrani

Buildings are major contributors to greenhouse gases (GHG) along the various stages of the building life cycle. A range of tools have been utilised for estimating building…

Abstract

Purpose

Buildings are major contributors to greenhouse gases (GHG) along the various stages of the building life cycle. A range of tools have been utilised for estimating building energy use and environmental impacts; these are time-consuming and require massive data that are not necessarily available during early design stages. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an Environmental Impacts Cost Assessment Model (EICAM) that quantifies both energy and environmental costs for residential buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed to develop the EICAM. The model consists of six input parameters, including wall type, roof type, glazing type, window to wall ratio (WWR), shading device and building orientation. In addition, the model calculates four measures: annual energy cost, operational carbon over 20 years, envelope embodied carbon and total carbon per square metre. The ANN architecture is 6:13:4:4, where the conjugate gradient algorithm was applied to train the model and minimise the mean squared error (MSE). Furthermore, regression analysis for the ANN prediction for each output was performed.

Findings

The MSE was minimised to 0.016 while training the model. Also, the correlation between each ANN output and the actual output was very strong, with an R2 value for each output of almost 0.998. Moreover, validation was conducted for each output, with the error percentages calculated at 0.26%, 0.25%, 0.03% and 0.27% for the annual energy cost, operational carbon, envelope materials embodied carbon and total carbon per square metre, respectively. Accordingly, the EICAM contributes to enhancing design decision-making concerning energy consumption and carbon emissions in the early design stages.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides theoretical implications to the domain of building environmental impact assessment through illustrating a systematic approach for developing an energy-based prediction model that generates four environmental-oriented outputs, namely energy cost, operational energy carbon, envelope embodied carbon, and total carbon. The model developed has practical implications for the architectural/engineering (A/E) industries by providing a useful tool to easily predict environmental impact costs during the early design phase. This would enable designers in Saudi Arabia to make effective design decisions that would increase sustainability in the building life cycle.

Originality/value

By providing a holistic predictive model entitled EICAM, this study endeavours to bridge the gap between energy costs and environmental impacts in a predictive model for Saudi residential units. The novelty of this model is that it is an alternative tool that quantifies both energy cost, as well as building’s environmental impact, in one model by using a machine learning approach. Besides, EICAM predicts its outcomes more quickly than conventional tools such as DesignBuilder and is reliable for predicting accurate environmental impact costs during early design stages.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Jian Yao and Rong-Yue Zheng

This paper conducted a study on the energy-saving potential of a developed thermotropic window. Office buildings in different climate regions of China were compared in…

Abstract

This paper conducted a study on the energy-saving potential of a developed thermotropic window. Office buildings in different climate regions of China were compared in terms of heating, cooling and lighting energy demands. Results show that annual heating and cooling energy demands for office buildings differ largely, while lighting energy demand at different climates keeps a significant percentage of the total energy demand, ranging from 36.1% to 66.3%. Meanwhile, thermotropic windows achieve a great advantage in improving daylighting performance and in reducing the overall energy demand, by reducing the overall energy demand by 2.27%-8.7% and 10.1%-21.72%, respectively, compared to movable shading devices and Low-E windows. This means that this kind of thermotropic windows have a great potential in applications in different climatic regions and can be considered as a good substitute of solar shading devices and Low-E windows.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2012

Emad S. Mushtaha, Taro Mori and Enai Masamichi

Several calls have been everywhere asking for proper use of passive design tools like shading devices, insulation, natural ventilation and solar panels in building…

Abstract

Several calls have been everywhere asking for proper use of passive design tools like shading devices, insulation, natural ventilation and solar panels in building architecture of hot-dry area in order to improve the thermal performance of indoor spaces. This paper examines the effect of these passive tools on indoor thermal performance which in turn helps arrange thermal priorities properly. Herein, basic principles of Successive Integration Method (SIM) have been utilized for an integrated design of two floors with small openings integrated with floor cooling, solar panels, natural ventilation, shading devices, and insulation. As a result, create priorities of passive tools that are structured consequently for ventilation, insulation, solar panels, and shading devices. This structure could guide designers and builders to set their priorities for the new development of building construction.

Details

Open House International, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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