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The knowledge that is embedded within people, relationships, and organizational routines present key, but varied, sources of capabilities needed to compete. The value of…
The knowledge that is embedded within people, relationships, and organizational routines present key, but varied, sources of capabilities needed to compete. The value of this knowledge depends on the investment costs and benefits that come as employees draw on and utilize these different forms of knowledge to respond to global challenges. But something as intangible as knowledge can be a major source of misunderstanding and mismanagement. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework that explores the underlying path of how knowledge assets might be configured to overcome misunderstanding and mismanagement.
The authors develop a framework to help scholars and organizations understand how to manage their different knowledge assets to ensure continual organizational effectiveness. To do this, the authors juxtapose three classes of knowledge assets – human capital, social capital, and organizational capital – against three types of learning – knowledge generation, transfer, and application.
The framework the authors develop provides both theoretical and practical insight into how organizations can manage their knowledge assets to overcome learning challenges.
The framework helps understand how organizations might align learning with their strategic challenges. It is useful in helping organizations develop a better understanding of the costs and benefits of different knowledge-management interventions according to the nature of the task and the learning needs of their organizations. When firms are confronted with challenges that present a great deal of uncertainty and they are in need of knowledge generation, transfer, and/or application, the framework could help them to identify which assets to invest in as well as the potential benefits of the investments.
This paper is unique in that it provides a framework linking knowledge assets with organizational learning in a way that has not been done before. It also outlines specific human resource approaches to managing these different configurations.
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 and its amendment – the Trade and Competitive Act of 1988 – are unique not only in the history of the accounting and…
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 and its amendment – the Trade and Competitive Act of 1988 – are unique not only in the history of the accounting and auditing profession, but also in international law. The Acts raised awareness of the need for efficient and adequate internal control systems to prevent illegal acts such as the bribery of foreign officials, political parties and governments to secure or maintain contracts overseas. Its uniqueness is also due to the fact that the USA is the first country to pioneer such a legislation that impacted foreign trade, international law and codes of ethics. The research traces the history of the FCPA before and after its enactment, the role played by the various branches of the United States Government – Congress, Department of Justice, Securities Exchange commission (SEC), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS); the contributions made by professional associations such as the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICFA), the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), the American Bar Association (ABA); and, finally, the role played by various international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). A cultural, ethical and legalistic background will give a better understanding of the FCPA as wll as the rationale for its controversy.
The 58th Annual Conference of the Sanitary Inspectors Association was held at Margate from September 10th to 14th. Mr. F. Willey, Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food, addressed delegates on September 12th, when discussions were devoted exclusively to clean food. He spoke of the valuable work being done by local authorities, and regarded education as more than half the battle. Referring to the Food and Drugs Acts he said it was now being considered whether wider powers were necessary in order to keep abreast of current trends in the food manufacturing and distributive industries, with advances in sanitary sciences and practice, and with enlightened public opinion.
Online database revenues up 28% Amidon/Litman, a consulting and research firm out of New Jersey, has released a report that states online revenues for 1988 were $1.03 billion for eight business‐to‐business markets. This represents a 28% growth rate over 1987, according to the report Vertical Information Markets & Company Profiles: A Dance Card. It contains lists of interesting information products and players suitable for acquisition, joint venture and product development.
This is an empirical study of family firm size, as measured by the number of employees, and the relationship of a firmʼs size to a variety of management activities…
This is an empirical study of family firm size, as measured by the number of employees, and the relationship of a firmʼs size to a variety of management activities, styles, and characteristics. A statistical analysis of data drawn from 159 American family businesses indicates significant differences by size with regard to the number of nonfamily members in top management, use of outside advisors, time spent engaged in strategic management, use of sophisticated methods of financial management, proportion of women family members involved in firm management, and level of conflict between family members. Implications are offered for family firm owner-managers, for those who assist such businesses, and for researchers in the field of family business.
In the literature of family business, certain management activities, styles and characteristics have been most frequently examined. Yet no prior research focusing on the…
In the literature of family business, certain management activities, styles and characteristics have been most frequently examined. Yet no prior research focusing on the relationship between these family businesses variables has been found. This is a survey‐research correlation study of 149 family businesses. Of the twelve variables studied, twenty of the sixty‐six correlations were found to be significant. Major findings are the consistent use of professional management activities, styles and characteristics in family businesses, and that using non‐family members within top management does not significantly increase the professionalism of management of such businesses.
Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Term. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here. They are available through normal trade sources. Mrs. Cheney, being a member of the editorial board of Pierian Press, will not review Pierian Press reference books in this column. Descriptions of Pierian Press reference books will be included elsewhere in this publication.
Talent is a critical factor for organizational success. Multinational corporations (MNCs) face the challenge of fierce competition for talent worldwide by increasing their…
Talent is a critical factor for organizational success. Multinational corporations (MNCs) face the challenge of fierce competition for talent worldwide by increasing their efforts in global talent management (GTM). To improve the strategic alignment of GTM, organizations increasingly incorporate information and communication technology (ICT) applications to support their GTM system. However, not every organization is successful at applying these new opportunities (e-GTM) and aligning them successfully with their organizational strategy. This chapter aims at conceptualizing the relationship between strategic GTM and strategic ICT in an aligned effort. It presents a conceptual framework that identifies four types of MNC approaches to e-GTM.
By means of a review of, both the GTM literature as well as the ICT literature, we connect the two concepts, GTM and ICT into e-GTM, into a framework along two axes: the extent to which MNCs apply GTM (ad hoc vs. strategic) and the scope of ICT in MNCs (operational vs. strategic).
Although the framework identifies four approaches to e-GTM in MNCs, the framework is less black and white than as presented. Companies can display e-GTM characteristics which place them in the gray areas in between each of the profiles. Additionally, we assume that achieving the alignment of strategic GTM and strategic ICT is an iterative process.
Since strategic alignment is not static but continuously changing, it requires companies to reevaluate their current GTM practices and ICT applications constantly while scanning the external market for new developments in the field of GTM and ICT to ensure the innovative state of their system. Furthermore, we assume that MNCs from high-tech sectors are more successful in supporting their strategic GTM applications with suitable ICT applications than MNCs from low-tech sectors. The study presents a first step toward researching the relationship between strategic GTM and strategic ICT in MNCs. The proposed framework might be used as a foundation for further research studies.
The framework presented in this chapter can help MNCs to address the issue of connecting GTM and ICT.
The relationship between GTM and ICT have not been conceptualized before. Furthermore, the typology presented in this chapter, with four approaches to ICT-enabled GTM, is a new way of looking at the GTM–ICT relationship.
The necessity of standards of purity for certain kinds of agricultural produce being now recognised by the new Adulteration Act—4, (1)—no apology is needed for attempting to bring the application of the principle into actual practice. Some few standards have already been generally adopted, and the legalization of limits relating to many of those substances with which the Adulteration Acts deal would undoubtedly be welcomed.
While mentoring plays an important role in Japanese working places, formal mentoring programs have only recently been introduced. This chapter provides an overview of the…
While mentoring plays an important role in Japanese working places, formal mentoring programs have only recently been introduced. This chapter provides an overview of the development of mentoring in Japan and presents a conceptual model to comprehend mentoring in Japan and beyond. The chapter begins with the illustration of how the characteristics of Japanese organizations and Japanese-style human resource management (HRM) promoted the naturally occurring informal mentoring in the Japanese workplace in early years. In response to the stagnating economy and declining demographics during the last few decades, many Japanese firms adopted Western-style HRM practices, including formal mentoring programs. We provide statistical data to demonstrate the widespread adoption of formal mentoring programs in recent years. We then report the results of the systematic review of the academic literature on mentoring in Japan, suggesting that research on mentoring in Japan is still in the early stage. Based on the historical overview, current data and the systematic review of the academic literature, we develop a conceptual model of how the socio-cultural and economic context as well as organizational characteristics influence the adoption of Japanese-style naturally occurring informal mentoring and/or Western-style formal mentoring practices. We conclude this chapter with practical and theoretical implications.