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This study examines the short-run and long-run impact of macroeconomic variables such as industrial production index, inflation, exchange rate, interest rate, foreign…
This study examines the short-run and long-run impact of macroeconomic variables such as industrial production index, inflation, exchange rate, interest rate, foreign direct investment and trade balance, on KSE 100 index and sectorial stock indices under bearish, bullish and normal states of the stock market prices. Moreover, we take into account the effect of three crises observed from 2005 to 2009.
This study uses quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) model for examining the short-run and long-run effect across various quantiles of the dependent variables and compare its' results standard autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model.
ARDL estimates indicate that, in the long-run, industrial production index, trade balance and foreign direct investment significantly affect stock prices. These findings remain same when three crises have been taken into consideration. In addition, estimates from QARDL model indicate that, in the short-run, the effect of exchange rate, interest rate, consumer price index and foreign direct investment, varies across bearish, bullish and normal states of the overall stock prices. Moreover, the short-run findings for Auto Assembler, Cement, Commercial Banks sector are consistent with overall stock indices, whereas other sectors, such as, Oil and Gas and Power Generation and distribution are asymmetrically affected by all macroeconomic variables. In the long-run, the effect of all macro-variables varies across different states of the stock markets except industrial production index for Auto Assembler sector, Oil and Gas sector and composite index of KSE 100 index.
We take into account the effect of three crises observed from 2005 to 2009 and also examine the macroeconomic effect across bullish, bearish and normal states of the sectorial stock indices and composite index of Pakistan stock exchange. Finally, we use novel approach, called QARDL model, which has several advantages over other techniques.
The main objective of this research is to analyze the living and learning experience of foreign students at Jinan University (JNU). The study aims to elicit two basic…
The main objective of this research is to analyze the living and learning experience of foreign students at Jinan University (JNU). The study aims to elicit two basic purposes; first, to help JNU administrators to measure the level of satisfaction of students and response to their needs. Second, to assess the existing facilities in the context of quality of education, the syllabus, credit system, choices of available courses, foreign faculty, teaching resources, effective dissemination of knowledge, behavior of administration and teachers, quality of food versus price, dormitory conditions, library resources, and other necessary facilities for productive learning.
To recognize the issues of foreign students and obtain their responses, this research has relied on several techniques. We have created a questionnaire and applied a systematic sampling technique. The questionnaire has been divided into several categories and sub-categories.
Findings of this study have confirmed that majority of the foreign students at JNU are satisfied with the learning and living conditions.
Though our study is subject to limitations, yet it provides some valuable insights. Due to lack of resources and time, we have limited our sample size to 27. However despite having few respondents, the overall feedback represents the entire population. Additionally, this study is mainly focused on foreign student’s living and learning experiences satisfaction. Hence, no dependent and independent variable relationship is being determined or argued.
However, as indicated by the respondents, JNU needs to improve its learning facilities, as well as induction of additional foreign faculty, availability of English text books, security of student dormitories, expansion of sports facilities, renovation of university roads, and installation of new equipment in the laborites. Such conclusion provides the administration and other stakeholders with valuable indicators of how well the JNU is meeting with the expectations of international students and how resources might best be directed to improve further services.
Our approach is unique and inventive, as so far there has been very little research that has been carried out on this topic on Chinese Universities. This study serves as a benchmark in measuring the living and learning experience of foreign students at JNU. The results of the research would be useful for planning and improving the quality of services and help the administration in formulating better policies for international students.