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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Tony Manning and Bob Robertson

This is the first of a three-part paper exploring the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The purpose of this paper is to introduce…

Abstract

Purpose

This is the first of a three-part paper exploring the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The purpose of this paper is to introduce research by the authors into differences in the behaviour of men and women managers in the UK Civil Service, differences in 360 degree assessments of these behaviours and variations in the behaviours and assessments in different organisational contexts. This part of the paper sets the scene, and provides a literature review and a series of conjectures, derived from this review.

Design/methodology/approach

This part of the paper outlines the training and development activities carried out by the authors and explains the target populations, the context in which managers operated and the part played by psychometric assessments in such activities. It then provides a literature review on the intersection of sex, gender and leadership. This looks at: the glass ceiling; leader preferences; gender stereotypes; gender stereotypes and leaders; attitudes towards women as leaders; leadership theories and gender stereotypes; sex differences in psychological traits; sex differences in leader behaviour and effectiveness. Finally, it presents a series of conjectures, derived from the literature review.

Findings

The literature review shows that the playing field that constitutes managerial ranks continues to be tilted in favour of men and behaviours associated with the male stereotype, despite what leadership theories and field evidence would suggest.

Research limitations/implications

The research was also a by-product of the authors’ training and development work, not a purpose-built research programme to explain the “glass ceiling”. It relates to the UK Civil Service and may not be relevant in other contexts.

Practical implications

Later parts of the paper present prescriptions for minimising the impact of gender stereotypes, along with an evidence-based leadership framework. Training and development implications are presented. Findings are relevant to leaders, would be leaders and human resource professionals, including training and development specialists.

Social implications

The vast majority of top leadership positions across the world are held by males rather than females. This prevents women from moving up the corporate ladder. This literature review describes the “glass ceiling” and explores what lies behind it.

Originality/value

Research on sex differences in behaviour, gender stereotypes and situational differences in both, in the UK Civil Service, are all original. Of particular importance is the new evidence-based framework of leadership competences.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Gary N. Powell

The purpose of this paper is to review six different ways that have been used to “see the elephant” that constitutes the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership.

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5094

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review six different ways that have been used to “see the elephant” that constitutes the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The proportions of women in positions of power and authority, leader preferences, leader stereotypes, attitudes toward women as leaders, linkages of leadership theories to gender stereotypes, and sex differences in leader behaviour and effectiveness are reviewed.

Findings

The managerial playing field continues to be tilted in favor of men and behaviours associated with the masculine gender stereotype, a phenomenon that occurs despite what leadership theories and field evidence would suggest.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should continue to track trends in proportions, preferences, stereotypes, attitudes, behaviour, and effectiveness pertaining to the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership. Scholars should not limit themselves in the kinds of research methods they apply to this task.

Practical implications

The challenge for organisations is to take advantage of and develop the capabilities of all individuals in leader roles and then create conditions that give leaders of both sexes an equal chance to succeed. The goal should be to enhance the likelihood that all people, women and men, will be effective in leader roles.

Social implications

Leader behaviour should have no gender.

Originality/value

This review encourages scholars to share what they have learned from their own ways of seeing, in this journal and elsewhere, and to listen carefully to what other scholars have to share.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1985

Steven Lysonski

Provides an empirical view of sexism in British magazine advertising in order to determine the frequency of role portrayals and the extent to which they have become more…

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1971

Abstract

Provides an empirical view of sexism in British magazine advertising in order to determine the frequency of role portrayals and the extent to which they have become more progressive. Examines various categories of magazines for both men and women in order to detect any shifts in sexual stereotyping. Remarks that results show some change in portrayals from 1976 to 1982–1983, although these shifts were not dramatic. Concludes, however, that stereotypical images of men and women still persist in British magazines.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Laurie A. Rudman and Julie E. Phelan

Early research on sexism presumed the traditional model of prejudice as an antipathy. This research focused on negative stereotypes of women as less competent than men and…

Abstract

Early research on sexism presumed the traditional model of prejudice as an antipathy. This research focused on negative stereotypes of women as less competent than men and hostility toward gender equality. More recently, sexism has been revealed to have a “benevolent” component; although it reflects positive beliefs about women, it also supports gender inequality by implying that women are weaker than men. In addition, although disconfirming stereotypes should provide women with a means of thwarting sex discrimination, recent research shows that even ambitious and successful women are punished for violating prescriptive stereotypes that assign them to subordinate roles.

Details

Social Psychology of Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1430-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

Lucette B. Comer and Tanya Drollinger

For the past several decades women have been moving into the United States workforce in greater numbers and they have been gaining access to the types of jobs that were…

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193

Abstract

For the past several decades women have been moving into the United States workforce in greater numbers and they have been gaining access to the types of jobs that were, traditionally, performed exclusively by men. Despite this progress, they are still having difficulty penetrating the so‐called “glass ceiling” into upper management positions (Alimo‐Metcalfe 1993; Tavakolian 1993). Many reasons have been advanced, but the most compelling of these concerns the “glass walls” that support the “glass ceiling”. The “glass walls” refer to those invisible barriers that limit the ability of women and minorities to gain access to the type of job that would place them in a position to break through the “glass ceiling” (Townsend 1996). If women are to gain parity with men in the workforce, they need to succeed in the positions that lie inside the “glass walls” that will enable them to rise through the “glass ceiling” to upper management.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Cigdem Basfirinci, Zuhal Cilingir Uk, Sernur Karaoglu and Kadriye Onbas

The purpose of this paper is to reveal implicit occupational gender stereotypes for 12 different occupations in Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal implicit occupational gender stereotypes for 12 different occupations in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 954 Turkish university students, this study aimed to explore which jobs are implicitly perceived to be masculine and which jobs are implicitly perceived to be feminine. The role of the respondents’ sex, the place where they grew up (metropolitan or rural) and the information level about the occupation (job title or job description) on occupational gender stereotypes were also tested. Gender stereotypes were assessed using a hypothetical scenario method, which provides an opportunity to reveal implicit information processing. Chi Square and t-test were used in hypothesis testing.

Findings

Consistent with the circumscription and compromise and the social role theory, as expected, the findings of the current study provided additional support about occupational gender stereotypes showing that job titles are strongly effective vehicles to communicate gender stereotypes for Turkish university students.

Originality/value

Using implicit measures of information processing and offering findings from a completely different cultural background (Turkey) constitutes the original contribution of this work.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Prokopis K. Theodoridis, Antigone G. Kyrousi, Athina Y. Zotou and George G. Panigyrakis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in male and female attitudes and establish a causal relationship between general (a priori) attitudes towards…

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5380

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in male and female attitudes and establish a causal relationship between general (a priori) attitudes towards female stereotypical advertisements and attitudes towards specific advertising stimuli, providing evidence from Greece and Cyprus.

Design/methodology/approach

Male and female respondents (158 in Cyprus and 156 in Greece) indicated their general attitudes towards female stereotypes in advertising and were subsequently exposed to three stereotypical advertisements, to which they expressed their specific attitudes.

Findings

The results of the study prove that in countries with similar cultural backgrounds, such as Greece and Cyprus, general attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising do not have significant differences. General attitudes towards sex role portrayal in advertising directly impact attitudes towards specific advertisements. Further, it was demonstrated that respondents' gender plays a key role in attitude formation. The age of the respondents is also of interest, given that differences exist in general attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising and in attitudes towards specific stereotypical advertisements within respondents of the same gender, but of a different age bracket.

Originality/value

The key potential contribution of this study is threefold. First, it investigates the effect of gender and age on attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising. Second, it establishes a causal relationship between general attitudes towards stereotypical advertisements and attitudes towards specific advertising stimuli. Third, the study further validates the established relationship and the relevant measures across culturally similar countries.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Maura J. Mills, Satoris S. Culbertson, Ann H. Huffman and Angela R. Connell

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a new gender role stereotypes scale intended to be a short, effective, and modern measure of gender role attitudes.

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5597

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a new gender role stereotypes scale intended to be a short, effective, and modern measure of gender role attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 800 participants completed an online survey, with 546 completing a second survey one week later. Recommended scale development procedures were utilized throughout in order to design and test the proposed instrument.

Findings

Item analyses determined a final set of most effective items, while exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the eight‐item, two‐dimensional (female stereotypes, male stereotypes) scale (Gender Role Stereotypes Scale – GRSS). Additionally, internal consistency and test‐retest reliabilities were acceptable, as was the construct‐related validity. This study also finds that gender role stereotypes are best examined as a two‐factor construct (male, female), rather than conceptualized as two poles of a unidimensional continuum.

Practical implications

The GRSS has advantages over similar measures, including that it assesses attitudes toward both men and women with only eight items, and includes items that are easily understandable, cross‐culturally appropriate, and modern. Practitioners can use the GRSS to assess potential gender role stereotypes held by management. If managers are found to have highly traditional gender role stereotypes, organizations may be able to intervene before stereotypes affect performance ratings or task assignments.

Originality/value

This paper yields an updated and sound measurement scale to replace outdated scales assessing similar constructs and/or assessing only one gender role stereotype (male or female, versus both). The GRSS allows for the parsimonious, comprehensive, and effective measurement of gender role stereotypes in research and practice alike.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Emília Fernandes and Carlos Cabral‐Cardoso

In spite of the progress made in the last decades, women still face difficulties in being accepted and recognised as managers. The manager’s role has been perceived as…

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3210

Abstract

In spite of the progress made in the last decades, women still face difficulties in being accepted and recognised as managers. The manager’s role has been perceived as masculine, and the gender stereotypes are therefore, a barrier to women’s access to management. With the aim to explore the relationship between gender stereotypes and management characteristics and discuss its implications for the discrimination of women in management a study was conducted among Portuguese undergraduate management students. The findings indicate that students of both sexes tend to perceive the “manager” category as closer to the masculine stereotype than to the feminine stereotype. Additionally, for male students the “man manager” and “manager” are more similar to each other than the “woman manager” and “manager” categories. However, the image of “woman manager” appears not to distance itself considerably from the “manager” stereotype as a result of her masculinisation. This paper discusses the implications of this asymmetric gender social representation that ultimately hinders the acceptance of women as a social group in the management context.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 18 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Cecilia L. Ridgeway

Gender is at core a group process because people use it as a primary frame for coordinating behavior in interpersonal relations. The everyday use of sex/gender as cultural…

Abstract

Gender is at core a group process because people use it as a primary frame for coordinating behavior in interpersonal relations. The everyday use of sex/gender as cultural tool for organizing social relations spreads gendered meanings beyond sex and reproduction to all spheres of social life that are carried out through social relationships and constitutes gender as a distinct and obdurate system of inequality. Through gender's role in organizing social relations, gender inequality is rewritten into new economic and social arrangements as they emerge, contributing to the persistence of that inequality in modified form in the face of potentially leveling economic and political changes in contemporary society.

Details

Social Psychology of Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1430-0

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