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Risk preference theory posits that females are more religious than males because they are more risk averse and are thus more motivated by the threat of afterlife…
Risk preference theory posits that females are more religious than males because they are more risk averse and are thus more motivated by the threat of afterlife punishment. We evaluate the theory formally and empirically. Formally, we show that the rational choice reasoning implied by the theory leads to unexpected conclusions if one considers belief in eternal rewards as well as eternal punishment. Empirically, we examine cross-cultural data and find that, across many populations, sex differences in religiosity are no smaller among those who do not believe in hell. We conclude by arguing that psychological characteristics are almost certainly crucial to understanding the difference, just not risk preference.
The use of tag questions in speech has been hypothesised to make speech sound uncertain and tentative although Holmes (1984) suggests that there are three different types…
The use of tag questions in speech has been hypothesised to make speech sound uncertain and tentative although Holmes (1984) suggests that there are three different types of tag questions and only one type is linked to uncertainty. Research on the issue of gender differences in tag question usage has produced confusing findings with some research indicating women use more tag questions, other research revealing men use more and some research finding no difference. The research on tag question use has identified role and power as important factors not just gender. The effects of the presence of the opposite sex on speech is a controversial area of study. Past research suggests that the use of tag questions is affected by whether the conversation is between members of the same sex or members of both sexes. The current study aimed to clarify the controversy of whether men or women use more tag questions, any possible effects of group composition and sought to extend research on the relationship of tag question use to role (chairperson or not) and power (highest status or not). The study was conducted at a power station in England. Ten business meetings which were all male, all female or mixed were tape recorded. From these tape recordings the tag questions were identified, transcribed and classified as modal, affective facilitative or affective softener according to the classification provided by Holmes (1984).
Observes that over the past two decades a body of literature on perceived differences in the management skills of men and women has emerged. Demonstrates, in a detailed…
Observes that over the past two decades a body of literature on perceived differences in the management skills of men and women has emerged. Demonstrates, in a detailed examination of sex/gender differences literature, that attempts to establish differences in management style and behaviour are inconclusive. Locating the article within feminist post‐structuralism, argues that it is important to focus not on the results of the sex/gender differences literature, but on its function and effects. Feels that the sex/gender differences literature functions to construct women’s management skills and its effects are to both regulate and marginalize women in senior management.
This study was conducted on children and adolescents from the three tribal cultures from Northern Tanzania: the Hadza, the Datoga and the Iraqw. The comparative data on…
This study was conducted on children and adolescents from the three tribal cultures from Northern Tanzania: the Hadza, the Datoga and the Iraqw. The comparative data on aggression and conflict management skills were measured at Endomaga Boarding School, Lake Eyasi, Mangola in Northern Tanzania, in 2005‐2006. The final sample included 219 children, ranging from 7 to 20 years of age. No sex differences were found in self‐ratings or frequency of occurrence of physical, verbal and indirect aggression in Iraqw children and adolescents, or in self‐ratings in Hadza. Hadza boys reported a higher occurrence of physical and indirect aggression during the previous week compared to girls. No differences between the sexes were found in constructive conflict resolution and third‐party interventions practiced by Iraqw and Datoga children and self‐ratings in Hadza. Hadza boys reported a higher frequency of constructive conflict resolution and third‐party interventions compared to girls. Significant sexual dimorphism on the 2D:4D ratio was found for our African sample. A significant negative correlation between the right hand 2D:4D ratio and ratings on physical aggression was found for the girls. The girls with the lowest finger index estimated themselves as more verbally aggressive, compared to girls with a medium 2D:4D ratio.
Gender-stereotyped organizational expectations compromise outcomes desired from numerically balanced gender representation. Sex-roles allow both men and women to exhibit…
Gender-stereotyped organizational expectations compromise outcomes desired from numerically balanced gender representation. Sex-roles allow both men and women to exhibit masculine or feminine behaviors based on their self-construal of “psychological-gender.” Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered “feminine” and rational intelligence “masculine.” So, using Bem sex-role inventory and Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, the current study explored EI in 217 senior Indian managers from masculine/feminine sex-role perspective. There was no difference in EI of men/women. Moreover, EI did not differ in men/women categorized in “same” sex-role. However significant differences emerged across sex-roles with feminine sex-role participants actually scoring significantly lesser than androgynous or masculine sex-role participants although emotional intelligence is considered as a feminine intelligence. Implications of sex-role-driven differences in EI in organizational context are discussed.
Means, medians and SD for available socio‐economic status (SES) black‐white differences are here substituted for those of IQ in a between‐groups model published by the…
Means, medians and SD for available socio‐economic status (SES) black‐white differences are here substituted for those of IQ in a between‐groups model published by the author over a decade ago. The goodness of fit of the SES variables used is compared with that for the earlier IQ data. Even when SES variables are relatively successful this can be viewed as additional evidence of the importance of IQ differences to black‐white differences in delinquency.
The purpose of this paper is to further understanding concerning sex differences in leadership styles and to examine the mediating role of gender identity traits in these…
The purpose of this paper is to further understanding concerning sex differences in leadership styles and to examine the mediating role of gender identity traits in these differences.
The paper draws on previous research that has established that many aspects of leadership style positively related to leaders' effectiveness are associated with the female gender role. Consistent with this assumption, the authors examined a sample of 157 Spanish managers whether significant sex differences favouring women emerge in relevant leadership dimensions (i.e. individualized consideration, contingent reward and emotional intelligence) and whether gender identity traits may help to explain such differences.
Results show that male leaders' lower scores in individualized consideration, positive contingent reward and emotional intelligence are partly explained by their lower identification with expressive traits. Furthermore, results indicate that integration of counter‐stereotypical traits into the self positively relates to effectiveness in the sense of use of a wider range of leadership styles for both women and men.
Future research could explore in more detail how sex differences in leadership styles are associated with gendered traits of identity in different countries, as well as whether a blend of masculine and feminine traits is predictive for a more multifaceted leadership style.
The findings are discussed in terms of how a gender perspective may help to better understand leadership effectiveness in contemporary organizations, especially in the case of male leaders.
This is the third part of a three-part paper on the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The first part of this paper provided an…
This is the third part of a three-part paper on the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The first part of this paper provided an introduction to the research, a literature review and some conjectures derived from it. The second part formulated specific null hypotheses, outlined the research methodology and presented research findings. The purpose of this paper is to explore the practical implications of the research findings, presents an evidence-based framework for understanding the transition into leadership, with prescriptions for its use and ends with a concluding discussion on the overall research findings.
Information was collected from a wide cross-section of UK Civil Servants between 1993 and 2013. Individuals were participants on training and development activities carried out by the authors. Individuals completed psychometric instruments, including self-assessments and 360 degree assessments and provided information on their sex, work role and work situation. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify behaviours associated with effective leadership, taking account of behaviours used, behaviours valued and behaviours valued more highly than in those in follower roles and situations. Comparisons were made between the effective leader behaviour profile and those for sex differences and gender stereotypes.
A very strong statistical relationship was found between the frequency with which individuals use a range of behaviours and the extent of their leadership role and situation. Moreover, particular behaviours were found to be more valued in leadership roles/situations, with clear differences between those valued in follower roles/situations. A combined leadership effectiveness profile had little in common with either the male/masculine or female/feminine profile.
The research was a by-product of the authors’ training and development work. It was not part of a purpose-built and wide-ranging research programme into sex, gender and leadership. It also relates to one context, the UK Civil Service, and may not generalise to other contexts. Nonetheless, there are clear parallels between these findings and previous research.
Gender stereotypes were best tackled by ensuring that all jobs are properly described and all assessments involved the use of relevant information against agreed job criteria, with appropriate training and development essential to maintaining best practice. Moreover, training and development activities should concentrate on actual individual differences, rather than stereotypical generalisations about such differences. Finally, an evidence-based, gender-neutral leadership framework was proposed. The leadership framework is relevant to would-be leaders, line managers and human resource professionals, including training and development specialists.
The research findings are relevant to understanding the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. They relate to wider social issues concerning equal opportunities and diversity.
There is an extensive body of theory and research on the intersection between sex, gender and leadership. However, very little focuses specifically on the UK Civil Service. These research findings and the subsequent analysis are, therefore, original. The gender-neutral, evidence-based leadership framework is an original contribution to both theory and practice.
Interpersonal networks and quality of women and men’s close work friendships in three work settings were investigated to assess potential impact of gender socialization…
Interpersonal networks and quality of women and men’s close work friendships in three work settings were investigated to assess potential impact of gender socialization and organizational structure factors on patterns of interaction within same‐sex and opposite‐sex work friendships, and to examine whether friendship quality would predict salary and job satisfaction and if this would differ as a function of the sex of the employee or the friend. Findings indicate that homophilous ties are stronger than opposite sex ties, which support previous research on relationships in the work environment. Work context influenced the nature of relationships among women and men. In contrast to research on friendships outside the workplace, work friendships involving women were not consistently rated as more satisfying and ratings varied across work settings. Quality of close male friendships was more associated with career success and job satisfaction than quality of close female friendships.
Influence tactics are prevalent in the workplace and are linked to crucial outcomes such as career success and helping behaviours. The authors argue that sex role identity…
Influence tactics are prevalent in the workplace and are linked to crucial outcomes such as career success and helping behaviours. The authors argue that sex role identity affects women’s choice of influence tactics in the workplace, but they only receive positive performance ratings when their behaviours are congruent with gender role expectation. Furthermore, the authors hypothesize that these relationships may be moderated by occupational continuance commitment. Results suggest that femininity is negatively related to the use of influence tactics overall, and this relationship is moderated by occupational continuance commitment.
In all, 657 women working in the construction industry were surveyed for their continuance occupational commitment and sex role identity and 465 supervisors whose responses are linked with the subordinates are surveyed for the women’s influence tactics and performance ratings.
Results suggested that femininity was negatively related to the use of influence tactics overall, and this relationship was moderated by occupational continuance commitment. Results also showed that women’s use of influence tactics was only positively received in terms of performance ratings when the influence tactic was congruent with gender role expectations.
The results of this current study suggest that not all women are equally likely to use influence tactics and not all tactics result in positive perceptions of performance. Feminine women in general refrain from using influence tactics unless they are driven to stay in a given occupation, but they only receive positive results when their behaviours are congruent with society’s gender role expectations.
Past research has mostly focused on broad differences between males and females, and this study has shown that there are more nuanced differences that can more accurately describe the effects of gender disposition (i.e. sex role identity) on influence tactics. It also emphasizes the importance of occupational commitment as a boundary condition, which influences women to step out of their gender roles even though they may be penalized with lower performance ratings.