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This chapter uses Sandra Bem’s scholarship to demonstrate the intersections between developmental and social psychological approaches to understanding masculinity and femininity.
This chapter uses Sandra Bem’s scholarship to demonstrate the intersections between developmental and social psychological approaches to understanding masculinity and femininity.
To highlight Sandra Bem’s contributions, we examined masculinity and femininity, broadly defined, from a socio-developmental theoretical perspective, conceptualizing gender development as embedded within a socio-historical context.
Our review of the literature illustrates that both age and social contextual features influence femininity and masculinity and more specifically that in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, femininity and masculinity vary depending on the sex (same- vs. other-sex) of those in the social context. Along with demonstrating the current utility and extensions of Sandra Bem’s research, we also emphasize the feminist and social justice applications of her body of work.
Weaknesses in the existing methodology where instruments are designed based on the assumption that masculinity and femininity are stable traits rather than characteristics that vary are discussed. Limitations to research focused on either social or developmental perspectives are highlighted and suggestions for a more integrative approach are provided.
Similar to how Sandra Bem’s work showed that sex and gender need not be linked, research and theory on the developmental and contextual specificity of gender also demonstrate that there is freedom in the expression of gender.
Findings regarding the relationship between biological sex and job stress remain inconsistent. In the present chapter, we suggest that this is due to the overly simplistic…
Findings regarding the relationship between biological sex and job stress remain inconsistent. In the present chapter, we suggest that this is due to the overly simplistic and synonymous treatment of biological sex and gender. Specifically, researchers have operationalized gender as sex, neglecting the inherent complexity of the gender construct. To address this, we take a more nuanced approach and develop a theory around the effects of biological sex and gender on job stress, considering how sex, gender, sex-based prescribed gender roles and work roles interact to create role conflict. We predict that a lack of congruence between any of the aforementioned variables results in various types of role conflict, leading to stress, and requiring coping. Drawing on the literature on role conflict, emotional labor, and facades of conformity, we introduce the concept of gender façades as a coping mechanism. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Most well-known conceptualizations of sex, gender and sexuality privilege one version or another of a Western European or North American bi-polar paradigm. However, such a…
Most well-known conceptualizations of sex, gender and sexuality privilege one version or another of a Western European or North American bi-polar paradigm. However, such a focus ignores the ethnographic evidence for a larger range of sex–gender–sexuality constructs. This paper outlines parameters for known variations in cultural constructs of sex–gender–sexuality systems, and raises questions about contemporary trends in understanding sex, gender and sexuality. As a first step, and because the data are more plentiful, I focus on variations in cultural constructions of sex, gender and sexuality relevant to physiological males, leaving a thorough exploration of constructions relevant to physiological females for another paper. The contemporary spread of Western cultural hegemony, as well as some opposition to that model, has categorized many indigenous, multi-polar sex–gender–sexuality systems as either in need of modernization or simply not quite civilized. The result is a loss, not only of knowledge about human plasticity in this area, but also a loss of cultural flexibility in organizing and dealing with human biocultural variation.
Purpose – This chapter responds to interdisciplinary debates regarding studies of sex, sexuality, and gender. I briefly examine how the sex/gender paradigm of the 1960s…
Purpose – This chapter responds to interdisciplinary debates regarding studies of sex, sexuality, and gender. I briefly examine how the sex/gender paradigm of the 1960s shaped feminist theory in the social sciences and explore two feminist frameworks that have contested the sex/gender paradigm: West and Zimmerman's “doing gender” and Butler's performativity. I situate this literature, and related debates about intersectionality, in the context of Margaret Andersen's (2005) Sociologists for Women in Society (SWS) feminist lecture.
Methodology/approach – Using empirical analyses of brief television excerpts, I develop an ethnomethodological study of practice and poststructural analysis of discourse to demonstrate how trenchant forms of cultural knowledge link together gender, sex, and sexuality.
Findings – Sex and gender function as disciplinary forces in the service of heterosexuality; consequently studies of gender that do not account for sexuality reproduce heterosexism and marginalize queer sexualities. These findings, considered in relationship to Andersen's analysis of intersectionality, illustrate both a narrow conceptualization of the field rooted to a 19th century European model and a methodological mandate that must be examined in relationship to the politics of social research.
Practical implications – A more fruitful conceptual starting point in thinking through intersectionality may be citizenship, rather than systematic exploitation of wage labor. In addition, a more full analysis of intersectionality would also require that we rethink our methodological orientations.
Originality/value of paper – The chapter illustrates some of the analytic effects and political consequences that commonsense knowledge about gender, sex, and sexuality holds for feminist scholarship and advances alternative possibilities for future feminist research.
Purpose: In this chapter, I critically examine how federal regulation and guidance impact gender policing and transgender inclusion within educational institutions.…
Purpose: In this chapter, I critically examine how federal regulation and guidance impact gender policing and transgender inclusion within educational institutions.
Approach: I utilize feminist critical discourse analysis to examine the “Dear Colleague Letter on Transgender Students” and its underlying assumptions related to transgender inclusion and gender policing in institutions of education.
Findings: While the federal regulations and guidance currently in place protect some transgender individuals, they also re-stigmatize some transgender individuals by policing the acceptable ways of being transgender and reinforcing the gender binary.
Social Implications: I suggest other areas within the educational institution to address in order to achieve transgender inclusion.
Value of Paper: This chapter critically examines the logistics and effects of federal regulation on gender and transgender inclusion.
Purpose – Historically, the gay and lesbian community has been divided over same-sex marriage along gender lines, with gay men its most frequent supporters and lesbians…
Purpose – Historically, the gay and lesbian community has been divided over same-sex marriage along gender lines, with gay men its most frequent supporters and lesbians its most frequent critics. In recent years, however, in localities where same-sex marriage has been available, the gender polarity around same-sex marriage has reversed, with lesbian couples constituting the majority of those married. Although same-sex marriage is framed in a gender-neutral way, the higher rate of lesbians marrying suggests that gay men and lesbians may have different stakes in, demand for, and benefits from access to marriage.Methodology – Drawing on interviews with 42 participants (24 women; 18 men) in the 2004 San Francisco same-sex weddings, I qualitatively analyze how and when gender comes to be salient in the decision by same-sex couples to marry.Findings – Explicitly attending to the intersections of gender, sexual identity, and family, I find that lesbians and gay men did not systematically offer different narratives for why they married, but parents did offer different meanings than childfree respondents: the apparent gender gap is better described as a parenthood gap, which has a demographic relationship to gender with more lesbians than gay men achieving parenthood in California. Scholarship on the gendered experience of reproduction suggests that the importance of gender in the experience of queer parenthood may persist even if parity in parenthood were reached.Originality/value – Findings attest to the importance of attending to the intersections of gender, sexual identity, and family for scholars of same-sex marriage.
Purpose: This chapter provides a contextualized understanding of the gendered anxieties expressed by elite sport regulators that motivated the formulation of sex testing…
Purpose: This chapter provides a contextualized understanding of the gendered anxieties expressed by elite sport regulators that motivated the formulation of sex testing policies in sport between 1937 and 1968. The focus is on complicating the claim that sex testing was first instituted to prevent explicit male bodies from fraudulently masquerading as women in sport. Rather, the chapter argues that sex testing policies were formulated in response to anxieties over sex binary pollution.
Methodology: The chapter is based on a genealogical study of the female category in elite sport, built on archival research conducted at the International Olympic Committee (IOC) historical archives and online newspaper archive collections.
Findings: Boundaries around female embodiment were navigated and written into sex testing policy in response to threats to presumed ideas around gendered and sexed normality in sport. These threats were embodied by athletes who polluted or crossed the border between female and male, to the extent that their bodies were rendered hermaphroditic, excessively masculinized, or hybrid. These bodies caused gendered anxieties for sport regulators, who reacted with policy responses that aimed to purify the sex binary from category pollution or sex abnormality.
Implications: As long as sex binary policing in elite sport continues, awareness of the contextual history of sex testing is essential for understanding the underlying ideas upon which sex binary policing in sport has been built.
This paper aims to explore brand sexual associations and to understand the antecedents of these associations by drawing from an anthropomorphic view of consumption and a…
This paper aims to explore brand sexual associations and to understand the antecedents of these associations by drawing from an anthropomorphic view of consumption and a socio-psychological perspective.
An exploratory qualitative analysis based on 18 semi-structured interviews was conducted. Following symbolic interactionism and inter-subjectively reflective approaches, three main methods were used: interviews, projective drawings and a pen-and-paper exercise.
The results of this paper strongly confirm that a brand is perceived by consumers as having a sex, a gender and a sexual orientation. These findings point toward a crucial distinction between these three constructs. Construct conceptualizations are developed and definitions are suggested. Nine antecedents for brand sexual associations are studied.
French subjects constitute the sample. Future studies might investigate the transferability of our results to other cultures. The three constructs broadens the existing brand-as-a-person metaphor and brand gender literature.
Managers need to consider the construction of their brands’ sexual identities, namely, the sexual associations that brand strategists desire to create and maintain. The study of the antecedents of brand sexual associations provides brand managers the opportunity to manage actively those specific types of associations.
This research contributes to the brand-as-a-person metaphor and to the brand gender literature with new insights about the nature and structure of brand sexual associations. This paper moves the conceptualization of these constructs forward.
Introduction: Recent research studies focusing on the relationship between psychiatric illness and deviant behaviour (Huselid & Cooper, 1992; Holman, Jensen, Capell, and…
Introduction: Recent research studies focusing on the relationship between psychiatric illness and deviant behaviour (Huselid & Cooper, 1992; Holman, Jensen, Capell, and Woodard, 1993) suggest that a behaviour that is inconsistent with sex‐role expectations, particularly when it is defined as more appropriate for the opposite sex, is seen as deviant. By implication, women's alcohol misuse falls into this category of ‘deviant deviance’. In their research on gender roles as mediators of sex differences in adolescent alcohol use and abuse, Huselid and Cooper (1992), concluded that the relationships between gender roles and alcohol use were consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with conventional gender identities conform more closely to cultural norms that condone drinking among males but not among females. In addition to heavy and problem drinking of women judged frequently to be a deviation from the traditional feminine role, it is also viewed as a rejection of the traditional feminine sex‐role and adoption of an aspect of the traditional masculine role, or both (Chomak and Collins, 1987). In their research on sex‐role conflicts in alcoholic women, when the factors of age, socio‐economic status (SES), and marital status were controlled, Kroft and Pierre (1987) observed that alcoholic women scored as more depressed and more sex‐role undifferentiated than non‐alcoholic women. Alcoholic women were also found to have a relatively traditional sex‐role ideology, and remitted alcoholics expressed less satisfaction than other groups with some traditional female roles. The presence of conflict between perceived (real) and desired (ideal) gender‐role characteristics, rather than the specific pattern or direction of the conflict, may best predict problem drinking. Similarly, the research on gender‐role attitudes, job competition and alcohol consumption among women and men, conducted by Parker and Hartford (1992), concluded that among females, the non‐traditional role of employment in non‐traditional gender‐role attitudes concerning responsibilities for household labour and child‐care were associated with greater alcohol consumption. Among the employed, traditional females and non‐traditional males had greater alcohol use. The females and males who experience conflict between competition at the work‐place and substantial obligations at home consumed a greater amount of alcohol. The results of these clashes between feminine role pattern at home and traditionally masculine roles of paid employment will be social and psychological conflicts and tensions that could adversely affect women's mental health (McBroom, 1986). In other words, many women may find it stressful to switch between more masculine role expectations in the workplace and more feminine role expectations in the home (Gerson, 1985) and some may increase their alcohol consumption to alleviate distress resulting from mismatched gender‐related role expectations and preferences (Eccles, 1987).
This is the first of a three-part paper exploring the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The purpose of this paper is to introduce…
This is the first of a three-part paper exploring the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The purpose of this paper is to introduce research by the authors into differences in the behaviour of men and women managers in the UK Civil Service, differences in 360 degree assessments of these behaviours and variations in the behaviours and assessments in different organisational contexts. This part of the paper sets the scene, and provides a literature review and a series of conjectures, derived from this review.
This part of the paper outlines the training and development activities carried out by the authors and explains the target populations, the context in which managers operated and the part played by psychometric assessments in such activities. It then provides a literature review on the intersection of sex, gender and leadership. This looks at: the glass ceiling; leader preferences; gender stereotypes; gender stereotypes and leaders; attitudes towards women as leaders; leadership theories and gender stereotypes; sex differences in psychological traits; sex differences in leader behaviour and effectiveness. Finally, it presents a series of conjectures, derived from the literature review.
The literature review shows that the playing field that constitutes managerial ranks continues to be tilted in favour of men and behaviours associated with the male stereotype, despite what leadership theories and field evidence would suggest.
The research was also a by-product of the authors’ training and development work, not a purpose-built research programme to explain the “glass ceiling”. It relates to the UK Civil Service and may not be relevant in other contexts.
Later parts of the paper present prescriptions for minimising the impact of gender stereotypes, along with an evidence-based leadership framework. Training and development implications are presented. Findings are relevant to leaders, would be leaders and human resource professionals, including training and development specialists.
The vast majority of top leadership positions across the world are held by males rather than females. This prevents women from moving up the corporate ladder. This literature review describes the “glass ceiling” and explores what lies behind it.
Research on sex differences in behaviour, gender stereotypes and situational differences in both, in the UK Civil Service, are all original. Of particular importance is the new evidence-based framework of leadership competences.