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Article

John N. Walsh and Jamie O'Brien

While service scholars see modularisation as balancing the efficiency of standardisation with the value added through customisation the relationships between these…

Abstract

Purpose

While service scholars see modularisation as balancing the efficiency of standardisation with the value added through customisation the relationships between these concepts are under-theorised. In addition, although information and communication technologies can facilitate all three service strategies, the degree to which they codify service knowledge is not explicitly considered in the extant literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model that examines service strategy trajectories by specifically considering the ICTs used and the degree of knowledge codification employed.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on three qualitative case studies of service departments of firms involved in cardiovascular applications, orthopaedic, spinal and neuroscience product development and information technology support. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, document analysis and non-participant observation.

Findings

Findings show that ICTs were increasingly used to codify both standardised and customised services, though in different ways. For standardised services ICTs codified the service process, making them even more rigid. Due to the dynamic nature of customised services, drawing on experts' tacit knowledge, ICTs codified the possessors of knowledge rather than the service process they undertook. This study also identified a duality between the tacit development of customised services and modular service codification.

Research limitations/implications

The model is validated using case studies from three companies in the medical and information technology sectors limiting its generalisability.

Practical implications

The importance of considering the degree of tacitness or explicitness of service knowledge is important for service codification. The paper provides managers with empirical examples of how ICTs are used to support all three strategies, allows them to identify their current position and indicates possible future trajectories.

Originality/value

The papers main contribution is the development of a model that integrates the literature on service strategies with knowledge management strategies to classify service standardisation, customisation and modularisation in terms of both service orientation and degree of ICT codification.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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Article

Brian Leavy

With the growing importance of services in the overall economy, it is surprising that the notion of service firms investing in systematic and dedicated innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

With the growing importance of services in the overall economy, it is surprising that the notion of service firms investing in systematic and dedicated innovation activities has taken so long to materialize. This is now set to change as service firms undertake the kind of research, design and development disciplines which for more than a century have been mainstays of modern manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

S&L interviews the well-known former editor of Harvard Business Review Thomas A. Stewart and his co-author, former BloombergBusinessweek.com editor Patricia O’Connell, in their latest book, Woo, Wow and Win: Service Design, Strategy and the Art of Customer Delight (Harper Business, 2016). They believe we are on the cusp of a “design revolution” in services.

Findings

The central thesis of their book is that services “should be designed with as much care as products are” and they include service “delivery” in that premise.

Practical implications

Service design principles offer powerful new ways to address the three basic strategy questions: What do we sell? To whom? And how do we win?

Originality/value

Service design helps you understand how to configure a set of activities, behaviors and touchpoints–a journey–that allows you to serve that customer well.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article

Cristina García-Magro and Isabel Soriano-Pinar

This paper aim to propose a model of analysis that justifies gamification as an adequate tool to improve the design of services through the human centered design (HCD) methodology.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aim to propose a model of analysis that justifies gamification as an adequate tool to improve the design of services through the human centered design (HCD) methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is a conceptual contribution. Based on the information provided by the academic literature on the design of services, HCD and gamification, the suitability of the proposed model is justified to help the servitized companies to improve the design of their services.

Findings

There is a gap in the academic literature about how a servitized company develops its service design process; consumers demand experiences through services; involving consumers in the co-creation of value and co-design of services can guide servitized companies to achieve success with servitization; gamification is an effective tool as a relational marketing strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The review of the literature carried out in this paper provides a solid theoretical basis for future researchers in the area of servitization, service design and relational marketing. However, given the conceptual nature of the research, it is necessary to validate empirically the proposed model.

Practical implications

The proposed model can be useful as a reference for manufacturing companies to guide their servitization process. The study extends the debate on how to integrate the design of services by presenting a model of development based on gamification.

Originality/value

Having knowledge of the end-user is essential throughout the service design process and gamification can be achieved as a HCD technique.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article

Raymond P. Fisk, Alison M. Dean, Linda Alkire (née Nasr), Alison Joubert, Josephine Previte, Nichola Robertson and Mark Scott Rosenbaum

The purpose of this paper is to challenge service researchers to design for service inclusion, with an overall goal of achieving inclusion by 2050. The authors present…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to challenge service researchers to design for service inclusion, with an overall goal of achieving inclusion by 2050. The authors present service inclusion as an egalitarian system that provides customers with fair access to a service, fair treatment during a service and fair opportunity to exit a service.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on transformative service research, a transformative, human-centered approach to service design is proposed to foster service inclusion and to provide a platform for managerial action. This conceptual study explores the history of service exclusion and examines contemporary demographic trends that suggest the possibility of worsening service exclusion for consumers worldwide.

Findings

Service inclusion represents a paradigm shift to higher levels of understanding of service systems and their fundamental role in human well-being. The authors argue that focused design for service inclusion is necessary to make service systems more egalitarian.

Research limitations/implications

The authors propose four pillars of service inclusion: enabling opportunity, offering choice, relieving suffering and fostering happiness.

Practical implications

Service organizations are encouraged to design their offerings in a manner that promotes inclusion and permits customers to realize value.

Originality/value

This comprehensive research agenda challenges service scholars to use design to create inclusive service systems worldwide by the year 2050. The authors establish the moral imperative of design for service inclusion.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Content available
Article

Chiehyeon Lim, Min-Jun Kim, Ki-Hun Kim, Kwang-Jae Kim and Paul P. Maglio

The proliferation of (big) data provides numerous opportunities for service advances in practice, yet research on using data to advance service is at a nascent stage in…

Abstract

Purpose

The proliferation of (big) data provides numerous opportunities for service advances in practice, yet research on using data to advance service is at a nascent stage in the literature. Many studies have discussed phenomenological benefits of data to service. However, limited research describes managerial issues behind such benefits, although a holistic understanding of the issues is essential in using data to advance service in practice and provides a basis for future research. The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap.

Design/methodology/approach

“Using data to advance service” is about change in organizations. Thus, this study uses action research methods of creating real change in organizations together with practitioners, thereby adding to scientific knowledge about practice. The authors participated in five service design projects with industry and government that used different data sets to design new services.

Findings

Drawing on lessons learned from the five projects, this study empirically identifies 11 managerial issues that should be considered in data-use for advancing service. In addition, by integrating the issues and relevant literature, this study offers theoretical implications for future research.

Originality/value

“Using data to advance service” is a research topic that emerged originally from practice. Action research or case studies on this topic are valuable in understanding practice and in identifying research priorities by discovering the gap between theory and practice. This study used action research over many years to observe real-world challenges and to make academic research relevant to the challenges. The authors believe that the empirical findings will help improve service practices of data-use and stimulate future research.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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Article

Heiko Gebauer, Thomas Fischer and Elgar Fleisch

The purpose of this paper is to explore the patterns of service strategy changes in manufacturing firms and indicates how each pattern is interrelated with modifications…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the patterns of service strategy changes in manufacturing firms and indicates how each pattern is interrelated with modifications in organizational design elements.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on a longitudinal study using a survey of 97 manufacturers of capital goods. In addition, 15 case studies have been conducted. Survey and qualitative data are obtained in 1997, 2001, and 2004.

Findings

The findings highlight four patterns of service strategy changes: from customer service strategy to after‐sales service provider, from after‐sales service provider to customer‐support service provider, from customer‐support service provider to development partner, and from customer‐support service provider to the outsourcing partner. Evidence of specific alignment between service strategy and organizational design elements is provided.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this paper is the purposive sample.

Practical implications

Managers should follow the patterns of service strategy changes by extending the service offerings and modifying the organizational design elements.

Originality/value

Previous studies investigate service strategies and organizational design elements only at a specific time, which leads to a static perspective. This paper offers insights into interrelations among service strategy changes and organizational design elements.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article

Oscar Barros

The purpose of this paper is to present a process architecture pattern for designing particular components of a complex service. The proposal emphasizes the design of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a process architecture pattern for designing particular components of a complex service. The proposal emphasizes the design of the service production flow component, following modularity ideas, which determines the sequence of actions needed to generate a high quality and efficient service. The authors report its applications to the design of the flow in a single emergency department (ED) case.

Design/methodology/approach

In complex services, production design is usually lacking because production activities are not clearly defined and, in many cases, they are dynamically determined as the service is produced according a client’s particular needs. In health services, for example ED, this generates a chaotic production flow that uses resources very inefficiently. The methodology uses a reference architecture, integrating it with disciplines – modularity, analytics and evaluation methods – that provide ideas for formally designing these complex services. This is mainly justified by the fact that, in many such services, no formal design exits and their production processes are the result of practice evolution.

Findings

Methodology was applied to the ED of a large public hospital. The authors first analyzed ED’s production and performance data. The authors found two patients’ groups that used more than 90 percent of resources. Therefore, design focused on these groups, defining specialized production lines for them and with physical space remodeled by an architecture project, resulting in well-defined separated workflows for each production line. Design also includes coordination with complementary shared services, including specialists consultations’ requests and execution, and request, processing and reception of laboratory and radiology examinations. The authors implemented new workflows producing a decrease of 26 percent in patients’ delays. More detailed results based on three months of observations also showed, for example, a reduction in examinations waiting times of 80 percent and an increase in the consultation resolution for cardiological patients from 24 to 80 percent in the same day, which means a significant quality increment.

Research limitations/implications

Thus, the authors conclude the plausibility of the idea they proposed that an important design problem in health services, in terms of potential improvements in capacity utilization, is production design. This provides the opportunity to reduce investing large amounts of resources in new hospitals and to instead use the alternative to generate large amounts of capacity by production performance improvements.

Practical implications

The authors are replicating the approach in other hospitals with extensions to inpatient and ambulatory services.

Social implications

Approach produces better service in public hospitals, which is a problem in emergencies in the world.

Originality/value

Formal design approach in health production services is proposed that provides great value by generating capacity, due to better use of resources, that reduces investment needs in new facilities.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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Article

Fons Wijnhoven and Jeroen Kraaijenbrink

The purpose of this paper is to give a structured literature review, design concepts, and research propositions related to a product‐oriented design theory for information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give a structured literature review, design concepts, and research propositions related to a product‐oriented design theory for information services. Information services facilitate the exchange of information goods with or without transforming these goods. Exemplar information services are e‐publishing, electronic communities‐of‐practice, and management reporting. The importance of information services in the current economy merits the development of an explicit product‐ and process‐oriented design theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This article focuses on the product‐oriented design theory by applying Walls et al.'s framework. A product‐oriented design theory of information services identifies relevant descriptive and explanatory insights (i.e. content, use, value, and revenue), meta‐requirements, and meta‐designs. The paper describes design problems for information services, and gives key requirements for information services. Next, it describes the information, organizational and information technological components of an information service, and identifies at least four information service architectures. Finally, it gives research hypotheses, research ideas, and discusses practical implications.

Findings

The results form a product‐oriented design theory for information services. The paper gives a structured way for practitioners to analyze information service design challenges, and suggestions are given for requirements and design decisions on three aspects (content, use feature, and revenue).

Originality/value

Given the previously fragmented nature of the literature, this paper gives new opportunities for research and practice.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article

Yong Lin and Saara Pekkarinen

This paper aims to develop a framework of QFD (quality function deployment)‐based logistics service design to integrate the HOQ (house of quality) technique and modular…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a framework of QFD (quality function deployment)‐based logistics service design to integrate the HOQ (house of quality) technique and modular logic to help in designing logistics services with high quality and a large service variety.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review, a conceptual research framework is built integrating the QFD method and modular logic together. A case study is used to illustrate a real application in logistics service design of the third‐party logistics (3PL) provider.

Findings

The results show that QFD and modularity used simultaneously as design principles can ensure service design quality at three layers (service, process, activity) in the modular logistics service platform.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides multi‐disciplinary insights for both industry and academics on how QFD/HOQ and modular logic can be integrated to systematically translate customer requirements into logistics service designs.

Practical implications

The framework proposed is directed to show how, at the operational level, the service providers can transform customer requirements to customer value with modular services and develop new service modules more quickly for new customers that have not been served before.

Originality/value

The resulting framework combining QFD philosophy and modular logic, particularly integrating three‐level HOQs paralleled with three layers in the modular service platform, adds knowledge in the research on service design, operations management and marketing.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article

Ahmad Beltagui, Marina Candi and Johann C.K.H. Riedel

The purpose of this paper is to identify service design strategies to improve outcome-oriented services by enhancing consumers’ emotional experience, while overcoming…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify service design strategies to improve outcome-oriented services by enhancing consumers’ emotional experience, while overcoming customer variability.

Design/methodology/approach

An abductive, multiple-case study involves 12 service firms from diverse online and offline service sectors.

Findings

Overall, six service design strategies represent two overarching themes: customer empowerment can involve design for typical customers, visibility, and community building, while customer accommodation can involve design for personas, invisibility, and relationship building. Using these strategies helps set the stage for a service to offer an emotional experience.

Research limitations/implications

The study offers a first step toward combining investigations of service experience and user experience. Further research can strengthen these links.

Practical implications

The six design strategies described using examples from case research offer managerial recommendations. In particular, these strategies can help service managers address the customer-induced variability inherent in services.

Originality/value

Extant studies of experience staging have focused on particular sectors such as hospitality and leisure; this study contributes by investigating outcome-focused services and identifying strategies to create unique experiences that offset variability. It also represents a rare effort to combine research from service management and interaction design, shedding light on the link between service experience and user experience.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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