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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2022

Burçin Özdamar, Tunca Tabaklar, Aysu Göçer and Wojciech D. Piotrowicz

The purpose of this study is to understand how humanitarian service triad members contribute to value co-creation, and how they assess the continuity of services in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand how humanitarian service triad members contribute to value co-creation, and how they assess the continuity of services in humanitarian supply chains (HSCs) to ensure support for beneficiaries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied a qualitative methodology through a single case study of a humanitarian service triad composed of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), service providers and beneficiaries. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations.

Findings

The findings confirm that the humanitarian service triad perspective in HSCs allows better understanding of humanitarian assistance. The findings indicate six components grouped into a humanitarian service triad framework, namely: service design, service reachability, training serviceability, collaboration, synergy, ethical considerations and after-service care.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to understanding of humanitarian services provision by studying service triads in humanitarian settings. It also confirms the need for cooperation between practitioners in services provision. The findings are limited to the context of refugees in Turkey, specifically humanitarian service triad located in Izmir area.

Practical implications

The Humanitarian Service Triad Framework for Service Provision proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for policy makers and practitioners involved in service design in HSC contexts, stressing the need for including all the framework components in practice.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to focus on a humanitarian service triad, which includes beneficiaries as triad members in long-term humanitarian service provision.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Gaby Odekerken-Schröder, Kars Mennens, Mark Steins and Dominik Mahr

Recent service studies suggest focusing on the service triad consisting of technology-customer-frontline employee (FLE). This study empirically investigates the role of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Recent service studies suggest focusing on the service triad consisting of technology-customer-frontline employee (FLE). This study empirically investigates the role of service robots in this service triad, with the aim to understand the augmentation or substitution role of service robots in driving utilitarian and hedonic value and ultimately customer repatronage.

Design/methodology/approach

In study 1, field data are collected from customers (n = 108) who interacted with a service robot and FLE in a fast casual dining restaurant. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to test hypotheses about the impact of service robots' anthropomorphism, social presence, value perceptions and augmentation opportunities in the service triad. In study 2, empirical data from a scenario-based experimental design (n = 361) complement the field study by further scrutinizing the interplay between the service robot and FLEs within the service triad.

Findings

The study provides three important contributions. First, the authors provide empirical evidence for the interplay between different actors in the “customer-FLE-technology” service triad resulting in customer repatronage. Second, the empirical findings advance the service management literature by unraveling the relationship between anthropomorphism and social presence and their effect on perceived value in the service triad. And third, the study identifies utilitarian value of service robots as a driver of customer repatronage in fast casual dining restaurants.

Practical implications

The results help service managers, service robot engineers and designers, and policy makers to better understand the implications of anthropomorphism, and how the utilitarian value of service robots can offer the potential for augmentation or substitution roles in the service triad.

Originality/value

Building on existing conceptual and laboratory studies on service robots, this is one of the first field studies on the service triad consisting of service robots – customers – frontline employees. The empirical study on service triads provides evidence for the potential of FLEs to augment service robots that exhibit lower levels of functional performance to achieve customer repatronage. FLEs can do this by demonstrating a high willingness to help and having excellent interactions with customers. This finding advocates the joint service delivery by FLE – service robot teams in situations where service robot technology is not fully optimized.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2018

Sourav Sengupta, Tarikere T. Niranjan and Mohan Krishnamoorthy

Service triads refer to tripartite relationships in which client firms serve their customers through third-party service providers. The purpose of this paper is to…

1011

Abstract

Purpose

Service triads refer to tripartite relationships in which client firms serve their customers through third-party service providers. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the nascent but fast-growing literature on service triads to explore the broad themes along which the literature has grown, and to identify the gaps and future research opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic literature review (SLR) approach is adopted to retrieve, select, and synthesise relevant service triads studies. A citation network analysis on the corpus resulting from the SLR identified the core articles of the literature.

Findings

The SLR uncovered ten themes of research along the articles’ objectives, theories and methodologies. The classification framework of service triads, the roles of customers and providers, the size of the provider, triadic risks, controlling service delivery and service quality, regulated triads, the stability of the triads, and cross-country, cross-culture triads emerged as significant under-researched areas.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates research trends and provides insights into the neglected and under-researched problems of service triads. This is the first SLR on service triads.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Kaat De Pourcq, Katrien Verleye, Bart Larivière, Jeroen Trybou and Paul Gemmel

Focal service providers increasingly involve customers in the decision-making about outsourcing parts of the service delivery process to third parties. The present study…

Abstract

Purpose

Focal service providers increasingly involve customers in the decision-making about outsourcing parts of the service delivery process to third parties. The present study investigates how customers' outsourcing decisions affect the formation of the waiting experience with the focal service provider, by which the objective waiting time, environmental quality and interactional quality act as focal drivers.

Design/methodology/approach

To test our hypotheses in the context of cancer care, we gathered process data and experience data by means of a patient observation template (n = 640) and a patient survey (n = 487). The combined data (n = 377) were analyzed using Bayesian models.

Findings

This study shows that opting for a service triad (i.e. outsourcing non-core services to a third party) deduces customers' attention away from the objective waiting time with the focal service provider but not from the environmental and interactional quality offered by the focal service provider. When the type of service triad coordination is considered, we observe similar effects for a focal service provider-coordinated service triad while in a customer-coordinated service triad the interactional quality is the sole experience driver of waiting experiences that remains significant.

Originality/value

By investigating the implications of customer participation in the decision-making about outsourcing parts of the service delivery process to third parties, this research contributes to the service design, service triad and service operations literature. Specifically, this study shows that customer outsourcing decisions impact waiting experience formation with the focal service provider.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Melanie E. Kreye

Servitization increases the uncertainty exposure of provider firms due to the operational differences between services and production which is further increased when…

Abstract

Purpose

Servitization increases the uncertainty exposure of provider firms due to the operational differences between services and production which is further increased when operations are set in triads. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the uncertainty exposure in servitized triads and explore suitable organisational responses.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual frame is defined detailing three uncertainty types (environmental, organisational and relational uncertainty) and suitable organisational responses to these. This frame guided the analysis of in-depth case evidence from a cross-national servitized triad in a European-North African set-up which was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews and secondary data.

Findings

The empirical study identified the existence of the three uncertainty types and directional knock-on effects between them. Specifically, environmental uncertainty created organisational uncertainty which in turn created relational uncertainty. The uncertainty types were reduced through targeted organisational responses where formal relational governance reduced environmental uncertainty, service capabilities reduced organisational uncertainty and informal relational governance reduced relational uncertainty. The knock-on effects were reduced through organisational and relational responses.

Originality/value

This paper makes two contributions. First, a structured analysis of the uncertainty exposure in servitized triads is presented which shows the existence of three individual uncertainty types and the knock-on effects between them. Second, organisational responses to reduce the three uncertainty types individually and the knock-on effects between them are presented.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Bernard Cova, Robert Spencer, Fabiana Ferreira and João Proença

Solutions are here approached from the focal net point of view i.e. the collaborative arrangements through which firms combine their individual offerings into a coherent…

Abstract

Purpose

Solutions are here approached from the focal net point of view i.e. the collaborative arrangements through which firms combine their individual offerings into a coherent, customer-facing solution. Focal nets are seen as an effective way to organize for value-system and solution development. However, a precise understanding as to how inter-firm dynamics support the morphing of a focal net to develop a customer’s solution is still not clear. This paper aims to provide an improved understanding of the dynamics at play between firms for providing a solution.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative and exploratory research approach is adopted, exploring the relationships at play within a focal net dedicated to providing a solution in the aerospace industry: a total of four triads are selected and analyzed, all of them involving the same buyer (the aircraft manufacturer) the same buyer’s customer (the airline) and a different service provider. Interviews with top managers in each company forming the triads have been carried out, with subsequent analysis, on the relational dynamics at play at the level of each triad and in-between triads within the focal net.

Findings

The study shows the handling by a solution provider of the transition from a program focal net to a customer-specific solution focal net. The four triads presented, taken individually, highlight four different component devices each of which contributes toward handling this transition. The four triads taken together along with their interactions (inter-triad) denote the capability of the solution provider to manage the morphing of the focal net.

Originality/value

The paper mobilizes a focal net perspective for the understanding of solution provision while combining this with a triadic perspective to demonstrate the inter-firm dynamics at play.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Evi Hartmann and Stefan Herb

The authors aim to conceptually show how social capital between service buyer and partner firm in a service triad impacts the service buyer's opportunism risk regarding…

1571

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to conceptually show how social capital between service buyer and partner firm in a service triad impacts the service buyer's opportunism risk regarding the service provider's behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on social capital theory to conceptually derive propositions on the role of social capital with regard to the antecedents of opportunism in service triads.

Findings

Based on literature, the authors show how social capital between service buyer and partner firm decreases the service buyer's opportunism risk regarding the provider's behavior. Structural capital enhances information flows, thus reducing ambiguity. Relational capital reduces ambiguity as well as the service buyer' dependence. Cognitive capital enhances the mitigating effect of relational norms.

Research limitations/implications

The authors extend the conceptual perspective on social capital and opportunism risk to triadic environments. Besides empirical validation, a resulting research program could follow three avenues: interdependencies between other relationships in service triads, the impact of social capital on effects other than opportunism as well as the role of relationships between individual boundary-spanners.

Practical implications

When deciding upon service outsourcing in triads, service buyers should assess their resulting opportunism risk, considering not only the service provider but also their relationship to the partner firm.

Originality/value

The propositions entail a shift from a dyadic to a triadic perspective. Analyzing the established dyadic concepts of social capital and opportunism in a triadic environment, the authors contribute to theory on triads as the simplest building blocks of networks.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 May 2022

Artur Swierczek

This study considers transitive service triads, which consist of three dyads formed by three actors: supplier, logistics service provider and customer, who remain directly…

Abstract

Purpose

This study considers transitive service triads, which consist of three dyads formed by three actors: supplier, logistics service provider and customer, who remain directly linked by one or more of the upstream and downstream flows of products, information and finances. This paper aims to explore the link between information governance, decentralized information technologies and supply chain self-organization, and their resulting impact on network performance in the transitive service triads.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon the tenets of the theory of complex adaptive systems and supply chain practice view, this paper involves an empirical investigation that uses survey data gathered from transitive service triads in the European countries. The study uses partial least squares structural equation modeling to estimate the formative-reflective hierarchical component model and test the research hypotheses.

Findings

Information governance defines how supply chain information flows are controlled, accessed and used by a focal organization and its business partners. As empirically evidenced in this study, it can be depicted as a latent construct consisting of three distinct dimensions of information custody, information ownership and right to data access. Likewise, the study also indicates that supply chain self-organization, as a second-order construct, consists of three interactive self-organization actions undertaken by specific firms participating in the triadic arrangement. Supply chain self-organization is thus produced by firms that are reciprocally interrelated and interacting, having effects on one another. Furthermore, the study also highlights that information governance creates an environment for applying decentralized information technologies, which then positively affects supply chain self-organization. Finally, the research also empirically operationalizes the construct of network performance within the transitive service triads.

Research limitations/implications

Although the results provide several major contributions to theory and implications for practitioners, the study still demonstrates some methodological constraints. Specifically, although the study uses a relatively large research sample of 350 transitive service triads, it still focuses only on a selected group of industries and is limited to investigating solely a particular type of service triads.

Originality/value

Given the increasing interest in investigating triads, this study examines how information governance and decentralized information technologies support supply chain self-organization to yield network performance in transitive service triads.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2020

Jas Kalra, Michael Lewis and Jens K. Roehrich

This paper aims to investigate governance in service triads, specifically studying significant steering and connecting coordination failures, to reveal typically hidden…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate governance in service triads, specifically studying significant steering and connecting coordination failures, to reveal typically hidden characteristics and consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focuses on coordination functions and activities between a buyer (a government department), a customer (a military service) and two service providers. Rich data on these normally confidential service ties are drawn from an official report into the causes of a fatal accident involving a UK reconnaissance aircraft and specifically from the evidence presented regarding the earlier development of its complex safety case. The authors also analysed a range of additional secondary data sources.

Findings

The authors examine the sources, drivers and manifestation of coordination failures. The authors uncover a series of coordination failures driven from the bridge position, revealing that while bounded rationality and opportunism influenced steering coordination failures, connecting coordination failures were associated with knowledge asymmetry, dyadic inertia and unethical practices.

Practical implications

Organisations and governments delivering complex projects and knowledge-intensive professional services should guard against outsourcing the “coordination” activity to a third party, thereby relinquishing the bridge position. Handing over the bridge position to an integrator would leave the client vulnerable to coordination dysfunctions such as bounded rationality, opportunism, knowledge asymmetry, dyadic inertia and unethical practices.

Originality/value

The study links the previously separate research streams of service triads and inter-organizational coordination. While extant research pays attention to mainly positive control functions, this study focuses on all three actors in two (failed) service triads – and highlights the impact of coordination activities and failures.

Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Graham Heaslip and Gyöngyi Kovács

The purpose of this paper is to explore service triads in humanitarian logistics (HL). The study uses agency theory to understand the dynamics between principal(s) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore service triads in humanitarian logistics (HL). The study uses agency theory to understand the dynamics between principal(s) and agent(s) and how contractual arrangements influence the service buyer–service provider alignment in humanitarian service triads.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study on a specific humanitarian service triad, with qualitative data being collected in a field study, utilising participant observation and in-context interview techniques for rich data collection.

Findings

The findings highlight the importance of both contractual and relational contracts between the service buyer, service provider and end customer – here donor (government), United Nations agency and implementing partner (IP). The alignment of the three parties in the service triad is more easily achieved through hybrid contracts rather than legal arrangements focussing on outcomes only.

Research limitations/implications

Results stem from a specific case study that constitutes a typical humanitarian service triad. An increased understanding of managing services and their service providers in the triadic context of outsourced service delivery adds to the body of knowledge in supply management.

Originality/value

This is the first examination of governance structures in contractual arrangements in a humanitarian service triad. The research fills the gap in humanitarian literature regarding the interaction of practitioners in HL, specifically, a service buyer organisation (a donor – government), a service provider (a UN agency) and the end customer (an IP). The research is field based and is grounded in empirical observations thus adding to the literature and offering insights to practice.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000