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Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2006

Kay Yoon and Lorna M. Doucet

Recent research on service interactions indicates that negative displays of emotion by service providers play an important role in customer perceptions of the quality of…

Abstract

Recent research on service interactions indicates that negative displays of emotion by service providers play an important role in customer perceptions of the quality of the service. In this study, we examined the relations between attributions of responsibility for problems and the displays of negative emotions by service providers in service interactions. We hypothesized that attributions of responsibility for problems moderate the relation between the negativity of service providers’ prior and subsequent emotion displays and the relation between the negativity of emotion display by customers and service providers. To test our hypotheses, we collected data from telephone service interactions in a large retail bank in the northeastern United States and measured the negativity of emotion displays by using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Our results showed that (1) the negativity of service providers’ prior emotion displays predicts the negativity of their subsequent displays, and (2) this relation is moderated by the attribution of responsibility for problems.

Details

Individual and Organizational Perspectives on Emotion Management and Display
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-411-9

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2022

Samby Fready, Prakash Vel and Munyaradzi W. Nyadzayo

The unprecedented changes in the marketplace induced by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant accelerated corporate migration to virtual ecosystems have added several…

Abstract

Purpose

The unprecedented changes in the marketplace induced by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant accelerated corporate migration to virtual ecosystems have added several unique research opportunities and theoretical gaps, especially in business-to-business (B2B) small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) markets in the service sector. Particularly, customer interactions in B2B services that were once sustained by the “people mix” now demand a huge overhaul in light of the “new normal” restrictions. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore how B2B service firms can engender firm value through virtual customer interactions during and in the post-COVID-19 era from an SME’s perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts an exploratory qualitative inquiry to contribute to this discourse by proposing a conceptual framework based on prior literature and relevant theoretical frameworks, as well as qualitative interviews with SME managers, CEOs and/or owner-managers.

Findings

The qualitative findings reveal organizational preparedness, empathy, digital content and trust as key enablers of effective B2B virtual interaction that enhances cocreated value, thereby augmenting firm value. This study offers a much-needed examination of virtual interaction in B2B contexts and proposes a business customer virtual interaction model.

Research limitations/implications

The exploratory nature of this study is one limitation, and future studies with a bigger representative sample size that uses survey or experimental data drawn from large enterprises might add value to the current findings. Also, while this study is conducted in dynamic markets due to the COVID-19 crisis, future research must examine the customer/firm’s experiences in other forms of crises-led market ecosystems.

Practical implications

B2B service firms must be strongly inclined to continuously take steps to develop and maintain virtual interaction with customers. Proactive efforts to familiarize internal and external stakeholders with virtual interaction platforms are a crucial step for effective customer engagement. The effectiveness of B2B virtual interactions can be strengthened through digital content that elicits trust and exhibits empathy, especially in crises led-markets. Also, the value created for the firm must be redeployed strategically to sustain positive customer engagement behaviors that continue to deliver value to the firm and the customer.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the increasing B2B customer engagement literature by exploring the ongoing dialogue on how B2B firms can strive and succeed in the post-COVID-19 era or related crises-led market ecosystems through enhanced virtual B2B customer interaction efforts.

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2022

Sarah Dodds, Rebekah Russell–Bennett, Tom Chen, Anna-Sophie Oertzen, Luis Salvador-Carulla and Yu-Chen Hung

The healthcare sector is experiencing a major paradigm shift toward a people-centered approach. The key issue with transitioning to a people-centered approach is a lack of…

Abstract

Purpose

The healthcare sector is experiencing a major paradigm shift toward a people-centered approach. The key issue with transitioning to a people-centered approach is a lack of understanding of the ever-increasing role of technology in blended human-technology healthcare interactions and the impacts on healthcare actors' well-being. The purpose of the paper is to identify the key mechanisms and influencing factors through which blended service realities affect engaged actors' well-being in a healthcare context.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper takes a human-centric perspective and a value co-creation lens and uses theory synthesis and adaptation to investigate blended human-technology service realities in healthcare services.

Findings

The authors conceptualize three blended human-technology service realities – human-dominant, balanced and technology-dominant – and identify two key mechanisms – shared control and emotional-social and cognitive complexity – and three influencing factors – meaningful human-technology experiences, agency and DART (dialogue, access, risk, transparency) – that affect the well-being outcome of engaged actors in these blended human-technology service realities.

Practical implications

Managerially, the framework provides a useful tool for the design and management of blended human-technology realities. The paper explains how healthcare services should pay attention to management and interventions of different services realities and their impact on engaged actors. Blended human-technology reality examples – telehealth, virtual reality (VR) and service robots in healthcare – are used to support and contextualize the study’s conceptual work. A future research agenda is provided.

Originality/value

This study contributes to service literature by developing a new conceptual framework that underpins the mechanisms and factors that influence the relationships between blended human-technology service realities and engaged actors' well-being.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Alison E. Lloyd and Sherriff T.K. Luk

This study seeks to investigate the service interaction behaviors that elicit a sense of comfort for the customer in the service encounter, and to investigate the…

6420

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate the service interaction behaviors that elicit a sense of comfort for the customer in the service encounter, and to investigate the mediating role of comfort on assessments of quality, customer satisfaction and positive word‐of‐mouth in two industries.

Design/methodology/approach

In‐depth interviews were used to create an initial list of interaction behaviors displayed by service employees in an encounter. A quantitative study was then used to collect data to empirically examine the relationship between the constructs of interest.

Findings

Two key groups of interaction behavior are identified and contain specific behaviors that create a sense of overall comfort for the customer. Overall comfort positively impacts both overall quality and customer satisfaction, and this ultimately leads to positive word‐of‐mouth.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses on two industries only: fashion apparel retailing and casual dining restaurants. Future research needs to examine other industries, experiential or credence services, level of involvement or the impact of culture.

Practical implications

Managers are recommended to incorporate interaction behaviors into front‐line employee training and design of comfort‐enhancing strategies.

Originality/value

Research on employee behaviors and emotional aspects of the encounter is relatively scant, and this study investigates the specific behavioral repertoire that gives rise to an overall feeling of comfort in the service encounter. Although employee behavior is widely acknowledged to have an immense impact on the customer's evaluation of the encounter, there still exists much room to explore specific behaviors that are important for successful service delivery.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Jiaqi (Gemma) Luo, IpKin Anthony Wong, Brian King, Matthew Tingchi Liu and GuoQiong Huang

This study draws on the service-dominant (S-D) logic paradigm to examine value co-creation and co-destruction. As these phenomena are driven by positive and negative…

3388

Abstract

Purpose

This study draws on the service-dominant (S-D) logic paradigm to examine value co-creation and co-destruction. As these phenomena are driven by positive and negative “customer-to-customer” (C2C) interactions, this paper aims to examine their influence on tourist perceptions of service quality and how they shape affective responses toward tourism and hospitality services and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a comprehensive literature review, the authors used convenience sampling to gather a large sample of tourists at Shanghai Disneyland, a recently opened and already popular international tourism attraction. Structural equation modeling was used to test for direct and moderated relationships.

Findings

The findings indicated that positive and negative C2C interactions have significant though differential impacts on customer responses. Furthermore, it was found that visitor arousal mediated the relationship between service quality and brand loyalty. Prior experience was identified as a moderator in the co-creation and co-destruction process during service encounters.

Practical implications

This paper is one of the first to examine the concept of co-destruction in the tourism and hospitality context. It contributes to the literature by demonstrating the merits of proactive service provision by tourism operators, taking account of both the co-creation and co-destruction of value.

Originality/value

The study extends the literature by taking account of both positive and negative C2C interactions when examining co-creation and co-destruction in the context of service encounters. It also contributes to knowledge by assessing the asymmetry of such interactions in the context of the customer experience.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Hyunju Shin, Alexander E. Ellinger, David L. Mothersbaugh and Kristy E. Reynolds

Services marketing research continues to be largely focused on firms’ reactive interactions for recovering from service failure rather than on proactive customer…

2383

Abstract

Purpose

Services marketing research continues to be largely focused on firms’ reactive interactions for recovering from service failure rather than on proactive customer interactions that may prevent service failure from occurring in the first place. Building on previous studies that assess the efficacy of implementing proactive interaction in service provision contexts, the purpose of this paper is to compare the influences of proactive interaction to prevent service failure and reactive interaction to correct service failure on customer emotion and patronage behavior. Since proactive interaction for service failure prevention is a relatively underexplored and resource-intensive approach, the authors also assess the moderating influences of customer and firm-related characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The study hypotheses are tested with survey data from two scenario-based experiments conducted in a retail setting.

Findings

The findings reveal that customers prefer service providers that take the initiative to get to them before they have to initiate contact for themselves. The findings also identify the moderating influences of relationship quality, situational involvement, and contact person status and motive.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the development of service provision theory and practice by expanding on previous studies which report that proactive efforts to prepare customers for the adverse effects of service failure are favorably received. The results also shed light on moderating factors that may further inform the exploitation of resource-intensive proactive interaction for service failure prevention. An agenda is proposed to stimulate future research on proactive customer interaction to prevent service failure in service provision contexts.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Quynh Xuan Tran, My Van Dang and Nadine Tournois

This study aims to investigate the effects of servicescape on customer satisfaction and loyalty – centered on social interaction and service experience in the café setting.

2167

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of servicescape on customer satisfaction and loyalty – centered on social interaction and service experience in the café setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were collected from approximately 1,800 customers at 185 coffee stores located in the three largest cities in Vietnam through the self-administered questionnaires.

Findings

The research findings pointed out the significant impacts of café servicescape on social interaction quality, including customer-to-employee interaction (CEI) and customer-to-customer interaction (CCI). Social interactions and servicescape were shown to remarkably influence customer experience quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty. Moreover, the study confirmed the interrelation between service experience, satisfaction and loyalty in the café setting.

Practical implications

This study provides marketers and service managers a deeper understanding of improving customer satisfaction and loyalty through the control of servicescape attributes and social interactions in café contexts.

Originality/value

This research explores the significant impacts of café servicescape on social interaction quality (CEI and CCI). Additionally, it provides insights within the role of social interactions to customer’s affective and behavioral responses in service settings, especially the CCI quality.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Sean Sands, Carla Ferraro, Colin Campbell and Hsiu-Yuan Tsao

Brands are increasingly considering the use of chatbots to supplement, or even replace, humans in service interactions. Like humans, chatbots can follow certain service

3086

Abstract

Purpose

Brands are increasingly considering the use of chatbots to supplement, or even replace, humans in service interactions. Like humans, chatbots can follow certain service scripts in their encounters, which can subsequently determine the customer experience. Service scripts are verbal prescriptions that seek to standardize customer service interactions. However, while the role of service scripts is well documented, despite the increasing use of chatbots as a service mechanism, less is known about the effect, on consumers, of different service scripts presented during chatbot service encounters.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental scenario was developed to test the research hypotheses. Respondents were randomly allocated to scenarios representing a 2 (service interaction: human, chatbot) × 2 (service script: education, entertainment) design. A total of 262 US consumers constituted the final sample for the study.

Findings

The findings indicate that when employing an education script, a significant positive effect occurs for human service agents (compared to chatbots) in terms of both satisfaction and purchase intention. These effects are fully mediated by emotion and rapport, showing that the bonds developed through the close proximity to a human service agent elicit emotion and develop rapport, which in turn influence service outcomes. However, this result is present only when an educational script is used.

Originality

This paper contributes to the emerging service marketing literature on the use of digital services, in particular chatbots, in service interactions. We show that differences occur in key outcomes dependent on the type of service script employed (education or entertainment). For managers, this study indicates that chatbot interactions can be tailored (in script delivered) in order to maximize emotion and rapport and subsequently consumer purchase intention and satisfaction.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Peter Jones

Groonroos (1990) notes that in the traditional literature on marketing the concept ‘marketing management’ is used to describe the practical applications of marketing and…

1471

Abstract

Groonroos (1990) notes that in the traditional literature on marketing the concept ‘marketing management’ is used to describe the practical applications of marketing and he suggests that this is perfectly appropriate in the case of consumer goods. However, he goes on to argue that in a service context the whole organisation has to be supportive to marketing and he concludes that marketing is an integral part of any theory of service management. One of the central themes in the rapidly growing services marketing and management literature (Berry and Parasuraman 1993) is the nature of the interactions and relationships between the service provider's personnel and the customer. Such a theme has been defined in a variety of ways. There has been considerable interest, for example, in the ‘Service Encounter’ or ‘Moment of Truth’ (Carlzon 1987) i.e., in the direct face‐to‐face contacts between the customer and the employers of the service firm whilst Solomon et.al., (1985) argue that this encounter has a major impact on service differentiation, quality control, delivery systems and customer satisfaction. Gronroos (1990) takes a longer term view in developing a relationship definition of marketing as being concerned “to establish, maintain and enhance relationships with customers … at a profit so that the objectives of the parties are met” (p.138). Bateson (1989) recognises the importance of the service encounter but also stresses that the non face‐to‐face interactions and the quality of the service environment must also be considered. This leads him to suggest that any conceptualisation of services marketing should include all kinds of possible interactions and that consideration should also be given to the ‘service experience’ rather than just to the service encounter.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 18 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Dongmei Li, Canmian Liu and Lishan Xie

This study aims to apply the elaboration likelihood model to explore when, how and why robotic services increase customer engagement.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply the elaboration likelihood model to explore when, how and why robotic services increase customer engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey and two experiments were conducted to examine the proposed theoretical framework.

Findings

The robots’ proactive behavior encouraged customers to trust and engage with them. The influence of this behavior on customer engagement increased for highly interaction-oriented customers or when the reputations of companies were poor.

Practical implications

The findings can inform the efficient management of customer–robot interactions and thus support firms’ relationship marketing objectives.

Originality/value

The literature on robotic services has recognized that robots should be proactive to ensure positive customer experiences, but few studies have explored the relational outcomes of proactive robotic services. The authors’ in-depth empirical examination thus extends research into the role these services can play in fostering customer engagement.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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