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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Paula Johnson

This paper aims to focus on staff injuries arising from incidents involving physical intervention (PI) with service users in a forensic, learning disability hospital.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on staff injuries arising from incidents involving physical intervention (PI) with service users in a forensic, learning disability hospital.

Design/methodology/approach

Incident reports and individual electronic patient records were analysed to review all incidents in which staff were injured from January‐September 2011.

Findings

Injury rates for staff were consistently higher than those for service users over the nine month period. The majority of staff injuries happen as a result of an assault on staff by the service user either before PI is used (36.3 per cent) or during the PI process (47.6 per cent). The remaining 16.1 per cent of staff injuries occur as a result of accidents during PI (12.9 per cent) or re‐escalation of aggression after the incident (3.2 per cent). Very few (4.8 per cent) staff injuries are reported as “serious”. Most serious injuries are caused by kicks from service users. Kicks from service users are the highest cause of all staff injury.

Research limitations/implications

This review is a retrospective analysis of incident reports and as such does not capture the richness of data which would be available in the planned qualitative piece of research.

Practical implications

The findings of this review can be used to inform aspects of physical intervention training which may be tailored to specifically address areas where staff are at increased risk of injury.

Originality/value

This review is unique in the available literature in highlighting the point at which the injury occurs during the PI process.

Details

Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0927

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

John N. Ivan and Karthik C. Konduri

Purpose – This chapter gives an overview of methods for defining and analysing crash severity.Methodology – Commonly used methods for defining crash severity are surveyed…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter gives an overview of methods for defining and analysing crash severity.

Methodology – Commonly used methods for defining crash severity are surveyed and reviewed. Factors commonly found to be associated with crash severity are discussed. Approaches for formulating and estimating models for predicting crash severity are presented and critiqued. Two examples of crash severity modelling exercises are presented and findings are discussed. Suggestions are offered for future research in crash severity modelling.

Findings – Crash severity is usually defined according to the outcomes for the persons involved. The definition of severity levels used by law enforcement or crash investigation professionals is less detailed and consistent than what is used by medical professionals. Defining crash severity by vehicle damage can be more consistent, as vehicle response to crash forces is more consistent than that of humans. Factors associated with crash severity fall into three categories – human, vehicle/equipment and environmental/road – and can apply before, during or after the crash event. Crash severity can be modelled using ordered, nominal or several different types of mixed models designed to overcome limitations of the ordered and nominal approaches. Two mixed modelling examples demonstrate better prediction accuracy than ordered or nominal modelling.

Research Implications – Linkage of crash, roadway and healthcare data sets could create a more accurate picture of crash severity. Emerging statistical analysis methods could address remaining limitations of the current best methods for crash severity modelling.

Practical Implications – Medical definitions of injury severity require observation by trained medical professionals and access to private medical records, limiting their use in routine crash data collection. Crash severity is more sensitive to human and vehicle factors than environmental or road factors. Unfortunately, human and vehicle factor data are generally not available for aggregate forecasting.

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Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2011

Neil Sugarman

This paper seeks to provide an analysis of historic and current criminal injuries compensation schemes in Great Britain.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to provide an analysis of historic and current criminal injuries compensation schemes in Great Britain.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper aims to explain the nature of the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority (CICA) that administers the present scheme and to identify the qualifying criteria to establish eligibility for awards of compensation and obstacles to success. It deals with the nature and amounts of the awards available, the evidence gathering process, causes of delay and impediments to the achievement of fair outcomes. In the context of cases of serious injury, including acquired brain injury, it examines specific problems that are likely to be encountered and a perceived inadequacy of the compensation available to victims of such injury. The paper considers the involvement of the National Health Service in cases where applications for compensation are made and the possibility that medical professionals might inadvertently hinder the chances of a fair award. The position of local authorities and social services departments is also addressed, as is the danger that proper claims for injured victims might not be identified.

Findings

From the point of view of the victim of crime who is faced with making an application to CICA, the problems that they face lie with the process, the possibility of being refused on technical grounds, limits on compensation, gaps in the scheme – which might leave victims or their relatives going uncompensated or under‐compensated, and finally the lack of financial support with the cost of representation where it is needed. Of equal concern is the fact that the description of the circumstances of the assault and the injuries suffered can be crucial to ensure that full, proper, and relevant evidence gathering is undertaken. Without suitable skills, it is very easy for the lay applicant inadvertently to mislead, or to give the CICA the opportunity to reject or under‐compensate.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed analysis of CICA and reflects upon what the future might hold for injured victims of crime.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2000

Laurence Jaeger and Sylvain Lassarre

Abstract

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Structural Road Accident Models
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043061-4

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Kelle Barrick, Kevin J. Strom and Nicholas Richardson

Violence against the police represents an ongoing and serious problem in the USA. In 2014, over 48,000 law enforcement officers assaulted while on duty. Although over one…

Abstract

Purpose

Violence against the police represents an ongoing and serious problem in the USA. In 2014, over 48,000 law enforcement officers assaulted while on duty. Although over one in four of these resulted in injury, little is known about the conditions under which injury is likely to occur. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of the individual and situational factors that predict injurious assaults against law enforcement.

Design/methodology/approach

Using logistic regression, the current study analyzes data from the 2012 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) on all assaults against the police (n=8,987) in order to understand, within a routine activities theoretical framework, how individual-level characteristics (i.e. officer and offender characteristics) and situational influences (i.e. assignment type, activity type, and location) predict the likelihood that an assault will result in injury.

Findings

Overall, findings suggest support for a routine activities theory of violence against the police. Initiating an arrest, one-officer vehicle type, and incidents occurring on highways/roads were all more likely to result in injurious assaults against the police. Other predictors of injury include officer and offender demographics as well as the time the incident took place.

Research limitations/implications

This research was unable to control for some factors that may influence the likelihood of injury such as wearing body armor. Additionally, NIBRS data are not nationally representative, which limits the generalizability of the findings.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to use national data to examine the individual and situational factors that predict injurious assaults against law enforcement.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Monica Galizzi, Roberto Leombruni, Lia Pacelli and Antonella Bena

The purpose of this paper is to study the factors affecting the return to work (RTW) of injured workers in an institutional setting where workers’ earnings are fully…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the factors affecting the return to work (RTW) of injured workers in an institutional setting where workers’ earnings are fully compensated during the disability period.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a unique data set matching employer-employee panel data with Italian workers’ compensation records. The authors estimate survival models accounting for workers’ unobserved heterogeneity.

Findings

Workers with higher wage growth, higher relative wages and from firms with better histories of stable employment, RTW sooner. More vulnerable workers – immigrants, females, members of smaller firms – also tend to return sooner. But even when we control for such measures of commitment, status, and job security, high-wage workers RTW sooner.

Research limitations/implications

The authors use proxies as measures of commitment and status. The authors study blue-collar workers without finer job qualifications. The authors estimate a reduced form model.

Practical implications

In an institutional environment where the immediate cost of workers’ compensation benefits falls largely on firms, employers seem to pressure those workers whose time off is more costly, i.e., high-wage workers. The lack of evidence of ex post moral hazard behavior also demands for a better understanding of the relationship between benefits and RTW.

Social implications

Workers who are induced to RTW before full recovery jeopardize their long- term health and employability. Firms that put such pressure on employees might generate social costs that can be particularity high in the case of high productivity workers.

Originality/value

The paper offers the first quantitative analysis of an institutional setting where injured workers face 100 percent benefits replacement rate and have job security. This allows focus on other workers’ or employers’ reasons to speed RTW. It is one of very few economics studies on this topic in the European context, providing implications for human resource managers, state regulators, and unions.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2000

Nicolas Chambron

Abstract

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Structural Road Accident Models
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043061-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1970

M.R. Denning, Edmund Davies and Fenton Atkinson

November 13, 1969 National Insurance — Industrial injuries benefit — Disablement benefit — Functions of statutory and medical authorities — Industrial accident followed by…

Abstract

November 13, 1969 National Insurance — Industrial injuries benefit — Disablement benefit — Functions of statutory and medical authorities — Industrial accident followed by two physical impairments — Medical authorities awarding disablement benefit based on only one loss of faculty and rejecting heart condition found by statutory authorities to be causally connected with accident — Statutory provision that “decision of any claim” “shall be final” — Whether medical authorities bound by decision of statutory authorities on nature of injury in determining injury benefit claim — When onus of proof on applicant — National Insurance Act, 1965 (c. 51), s. 75 — National Insurance Act, 1966 (c. 6), s. 8 (l)(a) — National Insurance (Industrial Injuries) Act, 1965 (c. 52), ss. 11 (1), 12(1), Sch. 4.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Claire Mayhew and Michael Quinlan

The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between economic pressure, multi‐tiered subcontracting and occupational health and safety (OHS) outcomes for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between economic pressure, multi‐tiered subcontracting and occupational health and safety (OHS) outcomes for employee and owner/drivers in long‐haul trucking, using Australian evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on direct interviews with 300 long‐haul drivers, using a structured questionnaire along with an examination of documentary records, statistics and government reports. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on self‐reported acute and chronic injuries, the incidence of occupational violence, truck crashes, indicators of illicit drug use, hours of work/fatigue and psychological distress.

Findings

Variations between owner/drivers and employees working for small and large firms were investigated. Overall, owner/drivers reported worse OHS than small fleet and, more especially, large fleet drivers. Evidence also indicated a connection between economic pressure, the expansion of contingent work and negative OHS outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Further longitudinal and comparative research is needed to test the hypothesized link between competitive pressures, supply chain rationalization and OHS outcomes. Research to investigate these issues in other countries is required in order to compare findings with those for Australia and to assess the effectiveness of new enforcement initiatives.

Practical implications

Findings suggest the need for policy interventions aimed at improving OHS to address commercial practices, including elaborate subcontracting chains, more explicitly than is currently the case with road transport regulation. Recent moves in this direction are identified.

Originality/value

Unlike manufacturing, healthcare and the public sector, there have been few studies of the OHS effects associated with contingent work arrangements in transport. In addition to helping to fill this gap the paper provides evidence on the effects of competitive pressure and supply chains on work practices and OHS.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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