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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

A. Ford Ramsey, Sujit K. Ghosh and Barry K. Goodwin

Revenue insurance is the most popular form of insurance available in the US federal crop insurance program. The majority of crop revenue policies are sold with a harvest…

Abstract

Purpose

Revenue insurance is the most popular form of insurance available in the US federal crop insurance program. The majority of crop revenue policies are sold with a harvest price replacement feature that pays out on lost crop yields at the maximum of a realized or projected harvest price. The authors introduce a novel actuarial and statistical approach to rate revenue insurance policies with exotic price coverage: the payout depends on an order statistic or average of prices. The authors examine the price implications of different dependence models and demonstrate the feasibility of policies of this type.

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchical Archimedean copulas and vine copulas are used to model dependence between prices and yields and serial dependence of prices. The authors construct several synthetic exotic price coverage insurance policies and evaluate the impact of copula models on policies covering different types of risk.

Findings

The authors’ findings show that the price of exotic price coverage policies is sensitive to the choice of dependence model. Serial dependence varies across the growing season. It is possible to accurately price exotic coverage policies and we suggest these add-ons as a possible avenue for developing private crop insurance markets.

Originality/value

The authors apply hierarchical Archimedean copulas and vine copulas that allow for flexibility in the modeling of multivariate dependence. Unlike previous research, which has primarily considered dependence across space, the form of exotic price coverage requires modeling serial dependence in relative prices. Results are important for this segment of the agricultural insurance market: one of the main areas that insurers can develop private products around the federal program.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Book part
Publication date: 26 April 2014

Konstantinos Drakos, Ekaterini Kyriazidou and Ioannis Polycarpou

This paper seeks to explain the serial persistence as well as the substantial number of zeros characterizing global bilateral investment holdings. We explore the different…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explain the serial persistence as well as the substantial number of zeros characterizing global bilateral investment holdings. We explore the different sources of serial persistence in the data (unobserved country pair effects, genuine state dependence, and transitory shocks) and examine the crucial factors affecting the decision to invest in a host country.

Methodology

Based on a gravity setup, we consider investment behavior at the extensive (participation) margin and employ dynamic first-order Markov probit models, controlling for unobserved cross-sectional heterogeneity and serial correlation in the transitory error component, in order to explore the sources of persistence. Within this modeling framework we explore the importance of institutional quality of the host country in attracting foreign investment.

Findings

The data support that the strong persistence is driven by true state dependence, implying that past investment experiences strongly impact on the trajectory of future investment holdings. Institutional quality appears to play a significant role to attract foreign investment.

Research implications

The empirical findings suggest that due to the existence of genuine state dependence, inward-investment stimulating policy measures could have a more pronounced effect since they are likely to induce a permanent change to the future trajectory of inward investment.

Originality

Both the substantial number of zeros and the salient persistence characterizing bilateral investment holdings decision have been previously overlooked in the literature. A study modeling jointly the levels and the selection mechanism could prove a fruitful direction for future research.

Details

Macroeconomic Analysis and International Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-756-6

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Beatriz Vaz de Melo Mendes and Cecília Aíube

This paper aims to statistically model the serial dependence in the first and second moments of a univariate time series using copulas, bridging the gap between theory and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to statistically model the serial dependence in the first and second moments of a univariate time series using copulas, bridging the gap between theory and applications, which are the focus of risk managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The appealing feature of the method is that it captures not just the linear form of dependence (a job usually accomplished by ARIMA linear models), but also the non‐linear ones, including tail dependence, the dependence occurring only among extreme values. In addition it investigates the changes in the mean modeling after whitening the data through the application of GARCH type filters. A total 62 US stocks are selected to illustrate the methodologies.

Findings

The copula based results corroborate empirical evidences on the existence of linear and non‐linear dependence at the mean and at the volatility levels, and contributes to practice by providing yet a simple but powerful method for capturing the dynamics in a time series. Applications may follow and include VaR calculation, simulations based derivatives pricing, and asset allocation decisions. The authors recall that the literature is still inconclusive as to the most appropriate value‐at‐risk computing approach, which seems to be a data dependent decision.

Originality/value

This paper uses a conditional copula approach for modeling the time dependence in the mean and variance of a univariate time series.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2014

Kenneth Y. Chay and Dean R. Hyslop

We examine the roles of sample initial conditions and unobserved individual effects in consistent estimation of the dynamic binary response panel data model. Different…

Abstract

We examine the roles of sample initial conditions and unobserved individual effects in consistent estimation of the dynamic binary response panel data model. Different specifications of the model are estimated using female welfare and labor force participation data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. These include alternative random effects (RE) models, in which the conditional distributions of both the unobserved heterogeneity and the initial conditions are specified, and fixed effects (FE) conditional logit models that make no assumptions on either distribution. There are several findings. First, the hypothesis that the sample initial conditions are exogenous is rejected by both samples. Misspecification of the initial conditions results in drastically overstated estimates of the state dependence and understated estimates of the short- and long-run effects of children on labor force participation. The FE conditional logit estimates are similar to the estimates from the RE model that is flexible with respect to both the initial conditions and the correlation between the unobserved heterogeneity and the covariates. For female labor force participation, there is evidence that fertility choices are correlated with both unobserved heterogeneity and pre-sample participation histories.

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Book part
Publication date: 24 March 2006

Yong Bao and Tae-Hwy Lee

We investigate predictive abilities of nonlinear models for stock returns when density forecasts are evaluated and compared instead of the conditional mean point…

Abstract

We investigate predictive abilities of nonlinear models for stock returns when density forecasts are evaluated and compared instead of the conditional mean point forecasts. The aim of this paper is to show whether the in-sample evidence of strong nonlinearity in mean may be exploited for out-of-sample prediction and whether a nonlinear model may beat the martingale model in out-of-sample prediction. We use the Kullback–Leibler Information Criterion (KLIC) divergence measure to characterize the extent of misspecification of a forecast model. The reality check test of White (2000) using the KLIC as a loss function is conducted to compare the out-of-sample performance of competing conditional mean models. In this framework, the KLIC measures not only model specification error but also parameter estimation error, and thus we treat both types of errors as loss. The conditional mean models we use for the daily closing S&P 500 index returns include the martingale difference, ARMA, STAR, SETAR, artificial neural network, and polynomial models. Our empirical findings suggest the out-of-sample predictive abilities of nonlinear models for stock returns are asymmetric in the sense that the right tails of the return series are predictable via many of the nonlinear models, while we find no such evidence for the left tails or the entire distribution.

Details

Econometric Analysis of Financial and Economic Time Series
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-388-4

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Vinodh Madhavan

The purpose of this paper is to first, test for nonlinearity in Local Indian Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) listed at NSE, India – NIFTYBEES, JUNIORBEES, BANKBEES…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to first, test for nonlinearity in Local Indian Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) listed at NSE, India – NIFTYBEES, JUNIORBEES, BANKBEES, PSUBANKBEES, and INFRABEES – using a battery of nonlinearity tests; second, to ascertain, using both metric and topological approaches, the adequacy of appropriate AR-GARCH models when it comes to capturing all of the nonlinearity in Indian ETFs; and third, to test for chaos in Indian ETFs.

Design/methodology/approach

To start with, a battery of tests such as and limited to McLeod Li test, Engle's LM test, Tsay F-test, Hinich Bispectrum Test and Hinich Bicorrelation test were employed to test for nonlinearity in Indian ETFs. Subsequently, the nature of nonlinearity in all the ETFs was systematically investigated by subjecting the ETF data sets to a metric (BDS test) and a topological test (close returns tests) at different stages of the model-building process. Finally, Lyapunov Exponent test was employed to test for chaos in Indian ETFs.

Findings

Test outcomes pertaining to a battery of nonlinearity tests indicate prevalence of nonlinearity amidst all ETFs except for INFRABEES. BDS test outcomes at the different stages of the model-building process indicated high sensitivity of the test outcomes to choice of embedding dimension, threshold value and residual transformations. Close returns test outcomes indicated that, but for BANKBEES, all of the nonlinearity in Indian ETFs could be captured by appropriate GARCH models. Finally, chaos was found to be absent in any of the ETFs considered for this study.

Practical implications

The collective take-way from this study is threefold in nature. First, in light of the many limitations of the BDS test, topological approaches such as close-returns test offer a better avenue to test for adequacy of AR-GARCH models in explaining the nature of nonlinearity in asset price movements. Second, adequacy of AR-GARCH models in capturing all of the nonlinearity in NIFTYBEES, JUNIORBEES, PSUBANKBEES, and INFRABEES, as indicated by close-returns test findings, is a reflection of multiplicative nature of nonlinearity in these five ETFs. Third, persistence of nonlinearity in AR-GARCH filtered standardized residuals of BANKBEES, coupled with the absence of chaos in any of the ETFs considered for this study, brings to light the possibility of existence of additive nonlinearity in conjunction with multiplicative nonlinearity.

Originality/value

This is possibly the first study that systematically investigates the nature of nonlinearity in Indian ETFs and ascertains the adequacy of AR-GARCH models when it comes to capturing all of the nonlinearity in Indian ETFs using a topological approach.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2010

Ivan Jeliazkov and Esther Hee Lee

A major stumbling block in multivariate discrete data analysis is the problem of evaluating the outcome probabilities that enter the likelihood function. Calculation of…

Abstract

A major stumbling block in multivariate discrete data analysis is the problem of evaluating the outcome probabilities that enter the likelihood function. Calculation of these probabilities involves high-dimensional integration, making simulation methods indispensable in both Bayesian and frequentist estimation and model choice. We review several existing probability estimators and then show that a broader perspective on the simulation problem can be afforded by interpreting the outcome probabilities through Bayes’ theorem, leading to the recognition that estimation can alternatively be handled by methods for marginal likelihood computation based on the output of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. These techniques offer stand-alone approaches to simulated likelihood estimation but can also be integrated with traditional estimators. Building on both branches in the literature, we develop new methods for estimating response probabilities and propose an adaptive sampler for producing high-quality draws from multivariate truncated normal distributions. A simulation study illustrates the practical benefits and costs associated with each approach. The methods are employed to estimate the likelihood function of a correlated random effects panel data model of women's labor force participation.

Details

Maximum Simulated Likelihood Methods and Applications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-150-4

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2014

Ryan Greenaway-McGrevy, Chirok Han and Donggyu Sul

This paper is concerned with estimation and inference for difference-in-difference regressions with errors that exhibit high serial dependence, including near unit roots…

Abstract

This paper is concerned with estimation and inference for difference-in-difference regressions with errors that exhibit high serial dependence, including near unit roots, unit roots, and linear trends. We propose a couple of solutions based on a parametric formulation of the error covariance. First stage estimates of autoregressive structures are obtained by using the Han, Phillips, and Sul (2011, 2013) X-differencing transformation. The X-differencing method is simple to implement and is unbiased in large N settings. Compared to similar parametric methods, the approach is computationally simple and requires fewer restrictions on the permissible parameter space of the error process. Simulations suggest that our methods perform well in the finite sample across a wide range of panel dimensions and dependence structures.

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Shuyun Ren and Tsan-Ming Choi

Panel data-based demand forecasting models have been widely adopted in various industrial settings over the past few decades. Despite being a highly versatile and…

Abstract

Purpose

Panel data-based demand forecasting models have been widely adopted in various industrial settings over the past few decades. Despite being a highly versatile and intuitive method, in the literature, there is a lack of comprehensive review examining the strengths, the weaknesses, and the industrial applications of panel data-based demand forecasting models. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by reviewing and exploring the features of various main stream panel data-based demand forecasting models. A novel process, in the form of a flowchart, which helps practitioners to select the right panel data models for real world industrial applications, is developed. Future research directions are proposed and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a review paper. A systematically searched and carefully selected number of panel data-based forecasting models are examined analytically. Their features are also explored and revealed.

Findings

This paper is the first one which reviews the analytical panel data models specifically for demand forecasting applications. A novel model selection process is developed to assist decision makers to select the right panel data models for their specific demand forecasting tasks. The strengths, weaknesses, and industrial applications of different panel data-based demand forecasting models are found. Future research agenda is proposed.

Research limitations/implications

This review covers most commonly used and important panel data-based models for demand forecasting. However, some hybrid models, which combine the panel data-based models with other models, are not covered.

Practical implications

The reviewed panel data-based demand forecasting models are applicable in the real world. The proposed model selection flowchart is implementable in practice and it helps practitioners to select the right panel data-based models for the respective industrial applications.

Originality/value

This paper is the first one which reviews the analytical panel data models specifically for demand forecasting applications. It is original.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Lixin Cai

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding labour supply dynamics of the UK workers by examining whether and to what extent there is state dependence in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding labour supply dynamics of the UK workers by examining whether and to what extent there is state dependence in the labour supply at both the extensive and intensive margins.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic two-tiered Tobit model is applied to the first seven waves of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study. The model used accounts for observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity and serially correlated transitory shocks to labour supply to draw inferences on state dependence.

Findings

The results show that both observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity contributes to observed inter-temporal persistence of the labour supply of the UK workers, and the persistence remains after these factors are controlled for, suggesting true state dependence at both the extensive and intensive margins of the labour supply. The study also finds that at both the margins, the state dependence of labour supply is larger for females than for males and that for both genders the state dependence is larger for people with low education, mature aged workers and people with long-standing illness or impairment. The results also show that estimates from a conventional Tobit model may produce misleading inferences regarding labour supply at the extensive and intensive margins.

Originality/value

This study adds to the international literature on labour supply dynamics by providing empirical evidence for both the extensive and intensive margins of labour supply, while previous studies tend to focus on the extensive margin of labour force participation only. Also, unlike earlier studies that often focus on females, this study compares labour supply dynamics between males and females. The study also compares the estimates from the more flexible two-tiered Tobit model with that from the conventional Tobit model.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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