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Joint space multidimensional scaling (MDS) maps are often utilized for positioning analyses and are estimated with survey data of consumer preferences, choices…
Joint space multidimensional scaling (MDS) maps are often utilized for positioning analyses and are estimated with survey data of consumer preferences, choices, considerations, intentions, etc. so as to provide a parsimonious spatial depiction of the competitive landscape. However, little attention has been given to the possibility that consumers may display heterogeneity in their information usage (Bettman et al., 1998) and the possible impact this may have on the corresponding estimated joint space maps. This paper aims to address this important issue and proposes a new Bayesian multidimensional unfolding model for the analysis of two or three-way dominance (e.g. preference) data. The authors’ new MDS model explicitly accommodates dimension selection and preference heterogeneity simultaneously in a unified framework.
This manuscript introduces a new Bayesian hierarchical spatial MDS model with accompanying Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for estimation that explicitly places constraints on a set of scale parameters in such a way as to model a consumer using or not using each latent dimension in forming his/her preferences while at the same time permitting consumers to differentially weigh each utilized latent dimension. In this manner, both preference heterogeneity and dimensionality selection heterogeneity are modeled simultaneously.
The superiority of this model over existing spatial models is demonstrated in both the case of simulated data, where the structure of the data is known in advance, as well as in an empirical application/illustration relating to the positioning of digital cameras. In the empirical application/illustration, the policy implications of accounting for the presence of dimensionality selection heterogeneity is shown to be derived from the Bayesian spatial analyses conducted. The results demonstrate that a model that incorporates dimensionality selection heterogeneity outperforms models that cannot recognize that consumers may be selective in the product information that they choose to process. Such results also show that a marketing manager may encounter biased parameter estimates and distorted market structures if he/she ignores such dimensionality selection heterogeneity.
The proposed Bayesian spatial model provides information regarding how individual consumers utilize each dimension and how the relationship with behavioral variables can help marketers understand the underlying reasons for selective dimensional usage. Further, the proposed approach helps a marketing manager to identify major dimension(s) that could maximize the effect of a change of brand positioning, and thus identify potential opportunities/threats that existing MDS methods cannot provides.
To date, no existent spatial model utilized for brand positioning can accommodate the various forms of heterogeneity exhibited by real consumers mentioned above. The end result can be very inaccurate and biased portrayals of competitive market structure whose strategy implications may be wrong and non-optimal. Given the role of such spatial models in the classical segmentation-targeting-positioning paradigm which forms the basis of all marketing strategy, the value of such research can be dramatic in many marketing applications, as illustrated in the manuscript via analyses of both synthetic and actual data.
A high level of product involvement is typically assumed to accompany higher information search, a fewer number of acceptable alternatives, and a higher number of choice…
A high level of product involvement is typically assumed to accompany higher information search, a fewer number of acceptable alternatives, and a higher number of choice criteria than does low level of product involvement. Inferring the level of product involvement from these behavioral or evaluative characteristics is, however, potentially misleading. Two factors are identified as mediating the relationship between the high level of involvement and these characteristics: (1) product trial, and (2) the consumer learning stage. The results of the present study support this view. Even for high involving products, considerable variations exist in these characteristics, depending on product trialability and consumer learning stage. Several strategic marketing implications stemming from these results are offered.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is considered a means to create competitive advantage for a company, as well as influence organizational performance. Much research…
Customer relationship management (CRM) is considered a means to create competitive advantage for a company, as well as influence organizational performance. Much research has explored CRM users' point of view vis‐à‐vis successful CRM implementation, yet little concern has been shown regarding customers' viewpoints toward these same actions. This is surprising given that one of the beneficiaries of CRM is the customer. This paper aims to report the results of a study that explored the gap between actual bank CRM actions and customers' expectations of those actions in relation to CRM customers' intention to remain in the relationship.
This study explores the gap between actual bank CRM implementation and customers' expectations of those actions in relation to customer retention using a survey method. A research model is presented to illustrate the theoretical relationships of the research.
The findings indicate that an incompatibility exists between the interval of actual CRM implementation activities and customers' expectations of the interval and that this incompatibility has an adverse effect on customers' willingness to remain in the relationship. Additionally, customers and CRM personnel hold different perceptions regarding the frequency with which CRM implementation activities should be executed.
Implementing CRM service efforts should be compatible with customers' expectations. Therefore, companies should pay keen attention when selecting the optimal frequency of CRM implementation so that it meets customers' expectations. Also, firms may be having too frequent CRM contact with customers, thus creating inefficient use of CRM resources.
This paper explores selected variables that may influence CRM performance vis‐à‐vis its implementation. The research provides the unique perspective of the customer as a major factor to consider for successful CRM implementation.