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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Tawanda Machingura, Gurjeet Kaur, Chris Lloyd, Sharon Mickan, David Shum, Evelyne Rathbone and Heather Green

Previous research has provided limited evidence on whether and how demographic factors associate with sensory processing patterns (SPP) in adults. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has provided limited evidence on whether and how demographic factors associate with sensory processing patterns (SPP) in adults. This paper aims to examine relationships between SPPs and sociodemographic factors of age, sex, education and ethnicity in healthy adults.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 71 adult participants was recruited from the community, using convenience sampling. Each participant completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales – short version (DASS-21). Demographic information on age, sex, education and ethnicity was collected. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA).

Findings

SPPs, as measured by the AASP, were significantly correlated to demographic factors of age and education after controlling for emotional distress using the DASS-21. A statistically significant multivariate effect was found across the four dependent variables (low registration, seeking, sensitivity and avoiding) for the age category, F = 6.922, p = 0.009, ηp2 = 0.145, in the presence of a covariate DASS. The education category showed significance only in the seeking domain (p = 0.008, ηp2 = 0.10) after controlling for DASS. There was no significant correlation between SPPs and gender or ethnicity. Results also indicated that mean scores of participants in this study were “similar to most people” as standardised in the AASP.

Research limitations/implications

This was a cross-sectional study with limitations including that the study used a relatively small sample and was based on self-reported healthy participants.

Practical implications

SPPs may correlate with healthy adults’ age and to a lesser extent education. This suggests that it might be helpful to consider such demographic factors when interpreting SPPs in clinical populations, although further research in larger samples is needed to reach firmer conclusions about possible implications of demographic variables.

Originality/value

The findings in this paper add to the growing evidence that suggest that SPPs vary with sociodemographic factors.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Geela Spira

This paper aims to investigate if a sensory intervention of moderate pressure touch of children with sensory processing disorder (SPD) affects sleep behaviors and sensory

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate if a sensory intervention of moderate pressure touch of children with sensory processing disorder (SPD) affects sleep behaviors and sensory processing behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 50 children, aged 5–11 years with both SPD and sleep difficulties in Israel, were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group, nonblinded. Participants in the experimental group received three weeks of nightly massage by their parents, with a baseline week on both ends. Parents filled out questionnaires reporting on sensory and sleep behaviors and filled out a nightly sleep log. Parents determined outcome goals using goal attainment scoring. The assessment tools used were the short sensory profile and the child sleep habits questionnaire (Dunn, 1999; Owens et al., 2000).

Findings

Significant improvement was found in the total and subgroup scores of sleep participation measures including sleep onset, sleep anxiety, parasomnias, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, as well as the total sleep score (F (1,48) = 24.71, p <0.001).

Originality/value

Results of this study suggest that consistent application of moderate pressure touch as advised or trained by an occupational therapist may be used in clinical practice to improve sleep participation in children with SPD.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Grace Branjerdporn, Pamela Meredith, Trish Wilson and Jenny Strong

This paper aims to investigate infant sensory patterns and their associations with previous perinatal loss, maternal-foetal attachment and postnatal maternal sensory patterns.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate infant sensory patterns and their associations with previous perinatal loss, maternal-foetal attachment and postnatal maternal sensory patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

In a prospective cohort study, women with and without perinatal loss (N = 57) were recruited from an Australian public hospital. Participants were surveyed during pregnancy (maternal-foetal attachment, loss) and again postnatally (maternal/infant sensory patterns). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses controlling for previous perinatal loss were conducted with infant sensory patterns as outcome variables.

Findings

“More than typical” infant low registration was associated with poorer quality of maternal-foetal attachment. “More than typical” infant sensory seeking was associated with previous perinatal loss and higher levels of maternal sensory seeking. “More than typical” infant sensory sensitivity was linked with previous perinatal loss, poorer quality of maternal-foetal attachment and higher maternal low registration. “More than typical” infant sensory avoidance was associated with poorer quality of maternal-foetal attachment and higher levels of maternal sensory sensitivity.

Practical implications

To support more typical infant sensory patterns, results point to the potential benefit of occupational therapists supporting pregnant women with previous perinatal loss; facilitating favourable maternal-foetal attachment; and educating new mothers on how their sensory patterns impact on interactions with their infant. Sensory modulation strategies that consider the sensory patterns of both mother and infant may be beneficial to promote engagement in co-occupations.

Originality/value

These findings are the first to suggest that previous perinatal loss, poorer quality of maternal-foetal attachment and higher levels of maternal postnatal sensory patterns represent risk factors for infant sensory patterns that are “more than typical.”

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Suzie McGreevy and Pauline Boland

An emerging evidence base, and increased awareness of the effects of trauma on the body, advocates a sensory-based approach to treatment with posttraumatic stress and…

Abstract

Purpose

An emerging evidence base, and increased awareness of the effects of trauma on the body, advocates a sensory-based approach to treatment with posttraumatic stress and complex trauma survivors. This paper aims to identify, analyse and summarise the empirical evidence for the sensory-based interventions, which occupational therapists are using in the treatment of adult and adolescent trauma survivors.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrative review of the literature was undertaken. Both empirical and conceptual papers were included. An inductive approach and constant comparative method were used to understand and synthesise the research.

Findings

The literature search yielded 18 papers describing the types of sensory-based interventions used, sensory processing (SP) patterns and the context and evidence for sensory-based occupational therapy practice with trauma survivors. Nine of the studies were empirical and nine were conceptual and review papers. Themes identified included: atypical SP patterns; type of sensory-based intervention used with trauma survivors; and transdisciplinary treatment programmes can reduce the symptoms of trauma.

Practical implications

Sensory-based interventions with adult and adolescent trauma survivors are emerging as promising areas of practice and research in the literature. Although empirical data is limited, the sensory needs of the body in processing trauma experiences is becoming more recognised and are supported by the atypical SP patterns identified in survivors. A sensory-based, transdisciplinary approach to treatment has the potential to be effective in treating the trauma survivor.

Originality/value

With a skill base in sensory integration and occupational analysis, occupational therapists have much to offer the field of trauma studies. This review begins to address the gap in the literature, recommending more rigorous controlled outcome research with larger sample sizes, person-centred studies focussing on the trauma survivor’s perspective and continuing professional development and mentorship for occupational therapists working with this population.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Michael Roskams and Barry Haynes

This paper aims to identify the employee characteristics which are most strongly associated with perceived requirements for different aspects of the workplace environment.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the employee characteristics which are most strongly associated with perceived requirements for different aspects of the workplace environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was completed by 364 employees from a large private-sector organisation. Respondents were surveyed on different work-related, personality and demographic characteristics. They then completed a series of items measuring perceived requirements for four aspects of the workplace environment (workspace segregation, workspace territoriality, individual environmental control and aesthetic quality). Associations between employee characteristics and perceived workplace requirements were explored using multiple regression analyses.

Findings

Numerous significant associations emerged. For example, the requirement for more segregated workspaces was associated with higher susceptibility to distraction, and the requirement for higher workspace territoriality was associated with less positive perceptions regarding the impact of flexible working on work effectiveness.

Originality/value

The individual difference factors which moderate satisfaction with the workplace environment have received relatively little attention in past research. The present study addresses this knowledge gap by including a wider range of employee characteristics and comprehensively investigating which of these most strongly predict differences in perceived requirements for the workplace.

Details

Facilities , vol. 38 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2014

Therese O' Donoghue, John Shine and Olufunto Orimalade

The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary data on a cohort of patients referred to a specialist forensic medium-secure autism spectrum disorder (ASD) service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary data on a cohort of patients referred to a specialist forensic medium-secure autism spectrum disorder (ASD) service during its first two years of opening and to identify variables associated with admission to the service.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on all referrals to the service (n=40) was obtained from clinical files on demographics, offending history, psychiatric history and levels of therapeutic engagement. The sample was divided into two groups: referred and admitted (n=23) and referred and not admitted (n=17). Statistical analysis compared the two groups on all variables.

Findings

Totally, 94 per cent of all individuals assessed had a diagnosis of autism, however, structured diagnostic tools for ASD were used in a small minority of cases. About half the sample had a learning disability, almost four-fifths had at least one additional mental disorder and almost three-quarters had a history of prior supervision failure or non-compliance with treatment. The sample had a wide range of previous offences. No significant differences were found between the groups on any of the variables included in the study.

Research limitations/implications

The present study presents a starting point to follow up in terms of response to treatment and characteristics associated with treatment outcome.

Practical implications

The sample had a wide range of clinical and risk-related needs. Both groups shared many similarities.

Originality/value

This highlights the need for comprehensive assessment looking at risk-related needs so that individuals are referred to an optimal treatment pathway.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2018

Keri Hoy, Sarah Parsons and Hanna Kovshoff

The primary to secondary school transition can have a significant and long-lasting impact on young people. Autistic children are particularly vulnerable to negative…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary to secondary school transition can have a significant and long-lasting impact on young people. Autistic children are particularly vulnerable to negative transition experiences; however, there is a lack of research examining effective practices and provision for these pupils. This case study involves a mainstream secondary school in the South of England, which has a dedicated Learning Support base. The purpose of this paper is to collect qualitative data on experiences of the primary to secondary school transition from multiple stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

A photovoice activity followed by a semi-structured interview was conducted with five autistic pupils aged 12–16 years; semi-structured interviews were also carried out with six parents and four teachers.

Findings

Five key themes emerged from the data in relation to effective practices: inclusion, child-centred approach, familiarisation, visual supports and communication and consistency.

Research limitations/implications

As a small-scale case study, there are limitations regarding generalisation. However, this research illuminates transition practices that are experienced as effective by autistic children, their families and teachers.

Practical implications

Practical implications related to each of these themes are highlighted. These implications are important in the context of the mandatory responsibilities of schools in England to include the voices of children and young people with special educational needs in decisions about their education.

Originality/value

The findings challenge a rights-based approach to inclusion and illustrate the importance of a needs-based approach which appropriately recognises and understands what autism means for children, their families and the teachers who support them.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Lisa Prior and Tiffany Howl

This chapter opens with the current thinking about sensory processing difficulties acknowledging the works, opposing stand points of the Sensory Integration Community…

Abstract

This chapter opens with the current thinking about sensory processing difficulties acknowledging the works, opposing stand points of the Sensory Integration Community, Ayres and APA and discussing implications for current assessment, treatment options and provision.

An experiential perspective is then presented from Graves’ work as an occupational therapist in CAMHS, from identification of commonly recognised presentations which can indicate sensory processing difficulties which include: ASD, ADHD, ‘fussy eater’, ‘emotional dysregulation’ and ‘meltdowns’ to detailing how these difficulties can be assessed and formulated with use of the sensory profile. Then the authors provide the practical examples of how to screen for these difficulties, explain them to young people, parents and schools and manage them through esnsory activities and environmental adaptations. The contributions from Howl’s experiences by working in the African Caribbean Community Initiative and as a specialist psychological wellbeing ractitioner improve access to psychological therapies for the ‘hard to reach’ population, consideration has been given to adapting these resources with the intention of them being more acceptable and accessible for use in work within BAME communities.

The chapter concludes with questions about the future implications for service provisions for people with sensory processing difficulties and how raised awareness of these difficulties might impact on other evidence-based diagnoses and treatments such as cognitive behaviour therapy (drawing on the authors recent learning on the CYP IAPT CBT course) for anxiety presentations.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2018

Meng-Hsien (Jenny) Lin, Samantha N.N. Cross and Terry L. Childers

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of emotions in processing scent information in consumer research, using event-related potential (ERP)-based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of emotions in processing scent information in consumer research, using event-related potential (ERP)-based neuroscience methods, while considering individual differences in sense of smell.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior research on olfaction and emotions in marketing has revealed mixed findings on the relationship between olfaction and emotion. The authors review earlier studies and present a neuroscience experiment demonstrating the benefits of ERP methods in studying the automatic processing of emotions.

Findings

Results demonstrate how emotional processes occurring within 1s of stimulus exposure differ across individuals with varying olfactory abilities. Findings reveal an automatic suppression mechanism for individuals sensitive to smell.

Research limitations/implications

Scent-induced emotions demonstrated through the use of ERP-based methods provide insights for understanding automatic emotional processes and reactions to ambient scents by consumers in the marketplace.

Practical implications

Findings show an automatic suppression of emotions triggered by scent in individuals sensitive to smell. Marketers and retailers should consider such reactions when evaluating the use of olfactory stimuli in promotional and retail strategies.

Originality/value

The authors review past literature and provide an explanation for the disparate findings in the olfaction–emotion linkage, by studying individual differences in response to scent in the marketplace. This is one of the first papers in marketing to introduce the application of ERP in studying consumer-relevant behavior and provide technical and marketing-specific considerations for both academic and market researchers.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

C. Lowe, K. Gaudion, C. McGinley and Alex Kew

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a people-centred, design-led approach to the different needs and aspirations of adults with autism could help inform the design…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a people-centred, design-led approach to the different needs and aspirations of adults with autism could help inform the design of space, objects and activities for individuals in their own homes to enhance everyday life experiences. There are dozens of studies that have reported the health benefits associated with good design and the Kingwood Trust set out to research what that might mean for the adults with autism it supports.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes three projects: Housing Design, Garden Design and Exploring Sensory Preferences whose design interventions were realised through a process of design ethnography, to include and work with the people that Kingwood support who have limited verbal speech and learning disabilities. Participatory observation, co-design workshops, interviews, visual probes and mapping tools were created to gather insights about how a person perceives and engages with the physical environment, with a particular focus on their sensory sensitivities and special interests.

Findings

The outcome of the project is a holistic, design-led approach to identifying the sensory preferences and special interests of adults with autism to inform the design of residential accommodation. A second project will be published at a later date, which will test and evaluate the effectiveness of the design interventions described in this paper as part of a PhD by practice supported by Kingwood Trust.

Originality/value

Autistic adults with limited verbal speech and additional learning disabilities, are often excluded from design research. This paper bridges this gap by selecting and adapting design methods that invite the people that Kingwood support to be active participants within the design process. The revised DSM-5 is an important milestone that puts the sensory environment back onto the roadmap within autism research, however the relationship between people with autism and the physical environment is a relatively under-researched area. This paper bridges this gap in research and illustrates how an autistic person's interaction and reaction to their home environment, can create understanding, tangible insights and clues to inform the design and adaptation of environments to reduce triggers of anxiety, making them more comfortable, enjoyable and meaningful for that person.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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