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The purpose of this paper is to focus on Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, giving a general overview of its urban context through five historical periods…
The purpose of this paper is to focus on Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, giving a general overview of its urban context through five historical periods, as part of a research study on its modernist architectural heritage.
Designed to mimic the theatrical process which unfolds through acts and intervals, the paper combines literary, architectural, journalistic and historical sources, to sketch the key periods which characterise the city’s urban morphology.
The sequence of acts and intervals points to the dramatic historic inter-change of continuities and ruptures, in which the ruptures have often been less studied and understood. This explains the frequent conceptualising of Sarajevo through East–West binary, which synthesises it as a provincial capital from Ottoman and later Habsburg rule, a regional centre within two Yugoslav states and a capital city of a young state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This highlights the need to study the ruptures as clues to the flow of continuities, in which the care and after care for built environment provide a field of evidence and possibilities for diverse perspectives of examination.
Corroborated by secondary sources, the paper examines the accounts of urban heritage destruction in the 1990s war, as recorded by a writer, an architect and a journalist, and outlines a pattern of unbroken inter-relations between urban and architectural space (tangible) and sense and identity of place (intangible).
This discourse is relevant to the current situation where the city of Sarajevo expands again, in the complexity of a post-conflict society.
Challenged by the political divisions and the laissez-faire economy, the public mood and interest is under-represented and has many conflicting voices.
Inspired by Italo Calvino’s Invisible Cities and the accounts from the siege of Sarajevo in the 1990s, this conceptual paper contributes to the formulation of a cross-disciplinary discursive prism through which the fragments of the city and its periods come together or apart, adding, subtracting and changing layers of meaning of the physical space.
As opposed to general literature reviews, by narrowing down the context only around the resources related to Six Sigma tools, this study aims to offer a strong discussion…
As opposed to general literature reviews, by narrowing down the context only around the resources related to Six Sigma tools, this study aims to offer a strong discussion about Six Sigma toolbox which has a vital role in the success of Six Sigma.
Based on a comprehensive literature research, the most used tools; classification of tools; flow of tools with respect to define, measure, analyze, improve and control (DMAIC) steps; tools as critical success factors and reasons of ineffective use of tools are reviewed. To stay focused and not to diverge from the research aim, 60 articles which are suitable to the context and flow of the discussion are selected during the construction of the study.
The study provides a detailed and integrated review of Six Sigma articles about tools. The most used tools are listed from different perspectives and resources, and the role of these tools has been discussed. After a broad review, a more practical and combined classification of Six Sigma tools is proposed. Next, the issue of using which tools during which steps of DMAIC is systematically addressed. Finally, emergence of tools as a critical success factor and the gaps in the literature related to tools of Six Sigma are pointed out.
Addressing important statistics and the facts related to the tools of Six Sigma helps new practitioners in particular to build a strategic filter to select the most proper tools throughout their projects.
This study is unique in investigating only Six Sigma toolbox and providing a literature review on this subject.